Word of the Day Archives

The Word of the Day is filed by month and year.  To access the list for a specific month, simply click on that month. If you experience any difficulties please contact the web page at ndflsc.ndflsc.1@nd.edu

2002     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2003     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2004     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2005     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2006     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2007     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2008     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2009     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2010     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2011     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2012     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2013     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2014     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2015     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2016     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec
2017     Jan     Feb     Mar    Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec


January 2002        "Words you should know."

Date Word Definition
1/2/2002 benign not a threat to life
1/3/2002 idiopathic pertaining to a disease without a recognizable cause/ spontaneous in origin
1/4/2002 bactericidal able to kill bacteria
1/7/2002 bacteriostatic inhibits the growth or multiplication of bacteria
1/8/2002 stenosis narrowing orr contraction of a body passage or opening
1/9/2002 flatulence excessive gas in the stomach or intestines
1/10/2002 ataxia motor incoordination
1/11/2002 paresis weakness and partial loss of voluntary muscle movement
1/14/2002 hypoxia reduction of oxygen to tissue despite adequate perfusion of tissues by blood
1/15/2002 perfusion passage of liquid through the vessels of a specific organ
1/16/2002 tachycardia abnormally rapid heart beat
1/17/2002 bradycardia abnormally slow heart beat
1/18/2002 icterus yellowing of skin, mucous membranes and sclera, also called jaundice
1/21/2002 pathogenic causing or capable of causing disease
1/22/2002 zoonotic the ability of a disease to be naturally transmitted from animals to man
1/23/2002 acidosis condition where the blood pH has dropped below the normal range
1/24/2002 dysphagia difficulty swallowing
1/25/2002 dyspnea difficulty breathing
1/28/2002 polyphagia increased appetite and eating
1/29/2002 poikilothermic possessing a body temperature that varies according to environmental temperatures
1/30/2002 polydipsia increased thirst and drinking
1/31/2002 polyuria increased urination

February 2002        "Too much candy, too much kissing."

Date Word Definition
2/1/2002 urticaria hives; a skin eruption of reddish wheals associated with intense itching
2/4/2002 erythemia diffuse redness of the skin
2/5/2002 papule pimple
2/6/2002 gangrene a form of necrosis (death) or putrification (rotting) of tissue
2/7/2002 exacerbation aggravation of symptoms
2/8/2002 frenulum a fold of membrane connecting one surface to another
2/11/2002 xerostomia dryness of the mouth
2/12/2002 uvula the small cone shaped downward projection from the free edge of the soft palate
2/13/2003 alopecia loss of hair; baldness
2/14/2002 mastication the process of chewing food
2/15/2002 deglutition the act of swallowing
2/18/2002 pyrosis heartburn caused by reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus
2/19/2002 tonsil a collection of lymphatic tissue in the walls of the pharynx
2/20/2002 glossitis inflammation of the tongue
2/21/2002 halitosis offensive breath odor
2/22/2002 chilitis inflammation of the lips
2/25/2002 ECG electrocardiogram; a record of electrical current originating in  heart muscle
2/26/2002 glycosuria presence of sugar in the urine
2/27/2002 hyperglycemia excessive sugar concentration in the blood
2/28/2002 gingivitis inflammation of the gums

March 2002            "Where exactly on the body is it?"

Date Word Definition
3/1/2002 deep away from the surface
3/4/2002 distal away from the center
3/5/2002 caudel away from the head
3/6/2002 inferior situated below another structure
3/7/2002 lateral toward the side
3/8/2002 medial toward the middle
3/11/2002 dorsal toward the spine (back of the body)
3/12/2002 ventral toward the sternum (front of the body)
3/13/2002 proximal toward the beginning of a structure
3/14/2002 superficial near the surface
3/15/2002 cephalic toward the head
3/18/2002 anterior toward the head
3/19/2002 posterior toward the tail
3/20/2002 plantar on the walking surface of the posterior feet
3/21/2002 palmar on the walking surface of the anterior feet
3/22/2002 superior situated above another structure
3/25/2002 efferent conducting away from a structure
3/26/2002 rostral toward the nose
3/27/2002 central toward the center
3/28/2002 intermediate between medial and lateral
3/29/2002 distal toward the end of a structure

 April 2002        "The leg bone is connected to the..."

Date Word Definition
4/1/2002 skull composed of several bones to protect the brain
4/2/2002 mandible movable lower jaw bone
4/3/2002 maxilla stationary upper jaw bone
4/4/2002 frontal bone bone of the skull above the eyes
4/5/2002 parietal bone bone of the skull that connects to frontal,occipital, and temporal bones
4/8/2002 vertebra small bones that form the spine
4/9/2002 nasal bone extends from the frontal bones to the nose tip and has a cartilege cap
4/10/2002 clavicle collar bone that connects the shoulder joint and the top of the sturnum
4/11/2002 sternum a long flat bone over the heart that connects to the ribs
4/12/2002 scapula shoulder blade connects to the clavicle and humerus to form the shoulder joint
4/15/2002 humerus long bone of the upper forelimb
4/16/2002 ribs multiple flat paired bones forming a cage for the heart and lungs
4/17/2002 radius larger bone of the lower forelimb
4/18/2002 ulna smaller bone of the lower forelimb
4/19/2002 carpals small bones that form the wrist
4/22/2002 metacarpals long bones that attach between the wrist and the digits
4/23/2002 phalanges small bones that comprise the digits
4/24/2002 femur long bone of the upper hindlimb
4/25/2002 tibia larger bone of the lower hindlimb
4/26/2002 fibula smaller boe of the lower hindlimb
4/29/2002 patella knee cap, a small bone located on the anterior surface of the knee joint
4/30/2002 calcaneus heel bone

May 2002        "I think it's broken."

Date Word Definition
5/1/2002 fracture a break in a bone
5/2/2002 greenstick fracture in which on side of the bone is broken, the other side is bent
5/3/2002 spiral a fracture caused by twisting apart of the bone
5/6/2002 transverse a fracture at right angles of the axis of the bone
5/7/2002 comminuted a fracture where the bone is crushed or splintered into multiple pieces
5/8/2002 compound a fracture where bone punctures through the skin
5/9/2002 capillary a fracture that appears on x-ray as a hairline without separation of the bone
5/10/2002 simple a fracture that does not penetrate through the skin
5/13/2002 multiple fracture lines on a single bone where the lines are not connected
5/14/2002 pathologic a fracture arising from a mild injury due to preexisting tumor, cyst, infection
5/15/2002 en coin a V-shaped fracture
5/16/2002 epiphysial  fracture at the point of union of the epiphysis and the shaft of the bone
5/17/2002 longitudinal a break in a bone extending lengthwise
5/20/2002 impacted fracture where one fragment is firmly driven into the other
5/21/2002 complicated a fracture with injury to adjacent structures
5/22/2002 stellate a fracture with fissures radiating from the central point of injury
5/23/2002 trophic a fracture caused by nutritional deficiencies
5/24/2002 resecting a fracture in which a piece of bone is removed by violence
5/27/2002 congenital a fracture of a fetal bone in utrero
5/28/2002 articular a fracture on the joint surface of a bone
5/29/2002 bending an indirect fracture caused by bending of a limb
5/30/2002 loose a fracture where both ends of the bone have free play
5/31/2002 ping-pong an indented fracture of the skull

June 2002        "Take a deep breath and hold it."

Date Word Definition
6/3/2002 nares openings in the nose for passage of air in and out
6/4/2002 nasal sinus mucosa- lined air cavities in the crainal bones which communicates with the nasal cavity
6/5/2002 turbinates small bones shaped like a toy top located in the sinuses
6/6/2002 epistaxis nose bleed
6/7/2002 pharynx  the musculomembranous sac between the mouth, nares and esophagus
6/10/2002 larynx the essential sphincter guarding the entrance to the trachea, secondarily the organ of voice
6/11/2002 epiglottis a cartileginous structure over the larynx prevents food from entering the larynx and trachea
6/12/2002 trachea a tube made of cartilaginous rings leading from the larynx and branching to form the bronchi
6/13/2002 bronchus any of the larger air passages of the lungs (plural bronchi)
6/14/2002 bronchiole a finer branch of the bronchial tree less than 1mm in diameter
6/17/2002 lung the organ of respiration, paired organs that effect the aeration of the blood
6/18/2002 alveolus small outpouching of the walls of alveolar sacs through which gas exchange takes place
6/19/2002 atelectasis a condition of collapse of a lung
6/20/2002 diaphragm the muscle separating the thoracic and the abdominal cavities
6/21/2002 inspiration the act of drawing air into the lungs
6/24/2002 expiration the act of expelling air from the lungs
6/25/2002 ausculation listening to the sounds of the body especially the heart and lungs
6/26/2002 sternutation the act of sneezing
6/27/2002 dyspnea difficult breathing
6/28/2002 cyanosis a blue tint to the skin/mucus membranes due to deficient oxygenation of the blood

July 2002        "I have an animal that has..."

Date Word Definition
7/1/2002 nystagmus involuntary rapid lateral movement of the eyeballs
7/2/2002 hypothermia abnormally low body temperature
7/3/2002 lacrimation the secretion and discharge of tears
7/5/2002 blepharitis inflammation of the eyelids
7/8/2002 conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva
7/9/2002 photophobia abnormal visual intolerance to light
7/10/2002 hyperesthesia abnormally increased sensitivity of the skin
7/11/2002 comatose being in a state of unconsciousness
7/12/2002 lethargy a condition of drowsiness or indifference
7/15/2002 anorexia lack or loss of appetite for food
7/16/2002 incontinence inability to control excretory functions of bladder and/or bowels
7/17/2002 alopecia absence of hair from areas where it is normally present
7/18/2002 exania prolapse of the rectum
7/19/2002 pruritis itching
7/22/2002 ascites accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
7/23/2002 prolapse the falling down or sinking of a part, protrusion through an opening
7/24/2002 excoriation superficial loss of skin such as that caused by excessive scratching
7/25/2002 rales abnormal respiratory sound indicating a pathologic condition
7/26/2002 torticollis contracted neck muscles producing twisting of the neck and abnormal head position
7/29/2002 erythema redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries
7/30/2002 icteric affected with jaundice
7/31/2002 petechia a pinpoint purplish spot caused by intradermal or submucus hemorrhage

August 2002        "I need to measure..."

Date Word Definition
8/1/2002 hygrometer an instrument for measuring the moisture in the atmosphere
8/2/2002 thermometer an instrument for determining temperature
8/5/2002 calorimeter an instrument for measuring the amount of heat exchanged in a system
8/6/2002 tactometer an instrument for measuring the acuteness of the sense of touch
8/7/2002 hydrometer an instrument for determining the specific gravities of a fluid
8/8/2002 refractometer an instrument for determining the indexes of refraction of various substances
8/9/2002 cardiometer an instrument used in estimating the power of the heart's action
8/12/2002 konometer an apparatus for counting the number of dust particles in the air
8/13/2002 acoumeter an instrument for use in testing accuracy of the hearing
8/14/2002 manometer an instrument to measure the pressure or tention of a liquid or gas
8/15/2002 spectrometer an instrument that measures the wavelength of rays of a spectrum
8/16/2001 hemocytometer a device for counting blood cells
8/19/2002 anemometer an instrument for measuring wind speed
8/20/2002 aerometer an instrument for estimating the density of air
8/21/2002 gasometer a calibrated container for measuring volume of gases
8/22/2002 dosimeter an instrument to measure exposure to radiation
8/23/2002 oximeter a photoelectric device for determining the oxygen saturation of the blood
8/26/2002 hemoglobinometer an instrument used to determine the amount of hemoglobin in the blood
8/27/2002 bdellometer an mechanical substitute for a leech
8/28/2002 aggregometer an instrument that detects changes in optical density of a solution caused by clustering
8/29/2002 glucometer a device used to determine the amount of glucose in the blood
8/30/2002 photometer a device for measuring the intensity of light

September 2002        "Everything you wanted to know but were afraid to ask.."

Date Word Definition
9/4/2002 pheromone a substance secreted, perceived by smell causing specific behavior in one of the same species
9/5/2002 Whitten Effect a synchronization of estrus among female mice housed together  due to phermones
9/6/2002 copulation sexual union between male and female
9/9/2002 Bruce Effect a reabsorption or abortion by the female when the sire of the litter is replaced by another male
9/10/2002 conception the penetration of the ovum by the sperm
9/11/2002 gravid pregnant
9/12/2002 gestation the time from conception to birth
9/13/2002 dystocia difficult labor or birth
9/16/2002 eclampsia condition of pregnancy  often linked to imbalance of Ca+ levels
9/17/2002 parturition the process of giving birth
9/18/2002 placenta organ of mammals during pregnangy joining mother and offspring
9/19/2002 umbilicus a small scar marking the attachment of the umbilical cord in the fetus
9/20/2002 post-partum the time after the birth - refers to the female
9/23/2002 colostrum mammary secretion of fluid predominantly immunoglobulins and minerals
9/24/2002 lactation the secretion of milk from mammary glands
9/25/2002 vasectomy surgical removal or severing of the vas deferens to induce infertility
9/26/2002 castration surgical removal of the gonads (specifically testes) to prevent reproduction
9/27/2002 hysterectomy surgical removal of the uterus
9/30/2002 ovariectomy surgical removal of the ovaries

October 2002        "They sound like they should be tumors - but they're not."

Date Word Definition
10/1/2002 stercoroma a large accumulation of fecal matter forming a tumor-like mass in the rectum
10/2/2002 hematoma a localized collection of blood in an organ, space or tissue due to a break in a blood vessel
10/3/2002 microsoma of very short stature but not a dwarf
10/4/2002 luteoma nodular hyperplasia of ovarian lutein cells during the last trimester of pregnancy
10/7/2002 cholesteatoma a cyst like mass with a lining of squamous epithelial cells containing debris including cholesterol
10/8/2002 scotoma an area of depressed vision within the visual field surrounded by an area of normal vision
10/9/2002 stomatonoma a gangrene of the oral tissues and face
10/10/2002 mesosoma of medium stature
10/11/2002 soma the body as distinguished from the mind, the cell body
10/14/2002 coma a state of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused
10/15/2002 blastroma the part of the egg which takes an active part in dividing and forming the blastoderm
10/16/2002 noma gangrene processes of the mouth or genitals
10/17/2002 rhacoma a pendulous scrotum
10/18/2002 keratoleukoma a white opacity of the cornea
10/21/2002 glaucoma a group of eye diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure
10/22/2002 leukocytoma a tumor like mass of white blood cells
10/23/2002 malacoma a morbidly soft spot or part
10/24/2002 stroma the supporting tissue or matrix of an organ
20/25/2002 megasoma of great size and stature but not a giant

November 2002    "Let's talk about tumors"

Date Word Definition
11/1/2002 neoplasm new and uncontrolled multiplication of cells that is progressive and abnormal
11/4/2002 benign not recurrent and favorable for recovery
11/5/2002 malignant to become progressively worse and resulting in death
11/6/2002 cancer a cellular tumor which is fatal
11/7/2002 tumor  neoplasm
11/8/2002 carcinoma a malignant growth made of epithelial cells
11/11/2002 sarcoma a tumor made up of cells that resemble embryonic connective tissue, often highly malignant
11/12/2002 fibrosarcoma a sarcoma derived from fibroblasts that produce collagen
11/13/2002 lipoma a benign tumor composed of fat cells
11/14/2002 osteoma a tumor composed of bone cells
11/15/2002 adenoma a benign tumor derived from glandular epithelium
11/18/2002 adenocarcinoma a malignant tumor derived from glandular tissue
11/19/2002 hemangioma a benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vessels
11/20/2002 lymphoma a tumor arising from lymphatic tissue
11/25/2002 hepatoma a tumor of the liver
11/26/2002 melanoma a tumor made up of melanin-pigmented cells
11/27/2002 myeloma a tumor composed of cell types normally seen in bone marrow
11/28/2002 fibroma a benign tumor composed of fibroblasts or fibrocytes
11/29/2002 glioma a group of intracranial tumors composed of glial tissues

December  2002        "I'm not crazy I'm just a little..."

Date Word Definition
12/2/2002 anamnesis  the faculty of memory
12/3/2002 amnesia  lack or loss of memory
12/4/2002 dementia a general designation for mental deterioration
12/5/2002 aphronia deficiency in mental discernment
12/6/2002 psychosis a general term for any major mental disorder
12/9/2002 hallucination a sense of perception without a source in the external world
12/10/2002 delusion a false belief which cannot be corrected by reason
12/11/2002 paranoia a disorder where ambitions or suspicions turn into delusions of persecution or grandeur
12/12/2002 schizophrenia a group of severe emotional disorders characterized by misinterpretation &  retreat from reality
12/13/2002 anxiety a feeling of apprehension, fear without apparent stimulus
12/16/2002 illusion a falsely intrepreted sensory perception
12/17/2002 hysteria a psyconeurosis which is characterized by lack of control over acts and emotions
12/18/2002 neurosis an emotional disorder due to unresolved conflicts
12/19/2002 compulsion an irrestible impulse to perform some act contrary to one's better judgement or will
12/20/2002 copodyskinesia difficult movement due to fatigue from habitual work, called occupational neurosis

January 2003        "Acronyms- gotta know them all"

Date Word Definition
1/2/2003 HEPA filter High Efficiency Particulate Air filter- filters that remove dust and other particles from the air
1/3/2002 PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals -animal rights group that opposes all animal use
1/6/2003 NIH National Institutes of Health -the largest source of government funding for research
1/7/2003 PI Principal Investigator -the scientist who plans and coordinates all phases of research
1/8/2003 SOP Standard Operating Procedure- written instructions for the performance of specific tasks
1/9/2003 IACUC  Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee -responsible for overseeing animal research programs
1/10/2003 USDA United States Department of Agriculture- responsible for administering & enforcing the AWA law
1/13/2003 CFA Complete Freund's Adjuvant -enhances antibody response, contains killed Mycobacterium organisms
1/14/2003 IFA Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant- enhances antibody response, doesn't contains Mycobacterium
1/15/2003 ELISA  Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay- a serological technique to rapidly measure ag-ab reactions
1/16/2003 SCID Severe Combined ImmunoDeficient - animals that lack both T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes
1/17/2003 SPF Specific Pathogen Free -animals in which certain disease-causing agents have been eliminated
1/20/2003 RODAC Replicate Organism Detection and Counting -type of plate to monitor facility sanitation practices
1/21/2003 CFUs Colony Forming Units- the number of colonies growing on a RODAC plate
1/22/2003 DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid -the basic genetic material of living organisms
1/23/2003 NSAID Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug- drug that reduces inflammation without side-effects of steroids
1/24/2003 CD Caesarian Derived- animal that was removed via c-section and fostered on a clean mother
1/27/2003 BR Barrier Reared- animals raised in a controlled microbial barrier
1/28/2003 PPE Personal Protective Equipment- any product worn by an individual to minimize risk of injury
1/29/2003 CMAR Certified Manager of Animal Resources- new AALAS certification level
1/30/2003 DVM Doctor of Veterinary Medicine - a veterinarian
1/31/203 RVT Registered Veterinary Technician - a Vet Tech

February 2003        "More medical abbreviations"

Date Word Definition
2/3/2003 po per os = by mouth
2/4/2003 Rx perscription
2/5/2003 Sx surgery
2/6/2003 Tx treatment
2/7/2003 CBC complete blood count
2/10/2003 WBC white blood cell
2/11/2003 RBC red blood cell
2/12/2003 PCV packed cell volume
2/13/2003 Hg hemoglobin
2/14/2003 Hct hematocrit, same as PCV
2/17/2003 B/O bleed out
2/18/2003 K/O knock out
2/19/2003 bid bis in die = twice a day
2/20/2003 tid ter in die = three times a day
2/21/2003 prn pro re nata = as necessary
2/24/2003 qid quarter in die = four times a day
2/25/2003 stat statim = immediately
2/26/2003 IM intramuscular
2/27/2003 IV intravenous
2/28/2003 ID intradermal

March 2003        "Explain genetics to me one more time."

Date Word Definition
3/3/2003 genetics the study of heredity, hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited traits
3/4/2003 alleles two or more forms of a gene that occurs on the same gene locus of its chromosomes
3/5/2003 heterozygous having two different alleles of a gene at corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes
3/6/2003 homozygous having two of the same alleles of a gene at corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes
3/7/2003 genotype the complete genetic makeup of an individual animal
3/10/2003 phenotype the observable or discernable physical characteristics of an animal
3/11/2003 chromosomes the paired structures, located in the nucleus of cells, that contain the genes
3/12/2003 genes units of inheritance located on the chromosomes and madeup of DNA
3/13/2003 genome the complete set of genes contained in the chromosomes of each cell of an individual
3/14/2003 knockout an animal that has had a gene or portions of its genes removed or blocked
3/17/2003 transgenic an animal that carries in its genetic makeup DNA transplanted from the genes of another animal
3/20/2003 chimera an animal in which some of its cells contain new DNA that was inserted during transgenic creation
3/21/2003 dominant a trait that is capable of expression when carried on only one of a pair of chromosomes
3/22/2003 recessive a trait that is capable of expression only when carried on both of a pair of chromosomes
3/23/2003 cloning  the making of identical copies of one or more DNA fragments
3/24/2003 mutation a spontaneous or induced change in part of the genetic makeup that is passed to offspring
3/27/2003 inbred animals produced by 20 generations of brother-sister matings resulting in minimal genetic variation
3/28/2003 outbred animal decended from unrelated parents resulting in a well mixed gene pool
3/29/2003 base pairs the complex of 2 nucleotides in DNA strands held together by hydrogen bonds
3/30/2003 diploid having two full sets of chromosomes as is normally found in somatic cells
3/31/2003 haploid having only one member of each pair of chromosomes,  normal in a gamete

April 2003        "Am I glowing yet?"

Date Word Definition
4/1/2003 radiology the study and use of radiant energy for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes
4/2/2003 radiation electromagnetic waves such as light or particulate rays like alpha, beta, gamma, x-rays
4/3/2003 ion an atomic particle, charged atom or chemically bound group of atoms
4/4/2003 ionization the process of producing ions
4/7/2003 irradiation treatment with ionizing radiation
4/8/2003 rad radiation absorbed dose, a unit of measurement of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation
4/9/2003 rem roentgen equilivant man, the quantity of ionizing radiation that has the same biological effectiveness as 1 rad of x-rays
4/10/2003 curie a unit of radioactivity = the quantity of any radioactive nuclide where the number of disintegrations/second is 3.7 x 1010
4/11/2003 bequerel the official unit of radioactivity one disintegration or decay per second = one becquerel (Bq)
4/14/2003 isotope a chemical element having the same atomic number as another but having a different atomic mass
4/15/2003 nuclide atoms of an element distinguishable by their weight, synonymous to isotope
4/16/2003 radioisotope an isotope that has an unstable nucleus, gives off radiation as it decays
4/17/2003 decay disintegration of the nucleus of an unstable nuclide by the emission of charged particles or photons
4/18/2003 half-life the time required for a radioactive substance to lose half of its activity by decay
4/21/2003 x-ray roentgen rays, electromagnetic vibrations of short wavelengths produced when electrons hit heavy metals at high speeds
4/22/2003 gamma rays electromagnetic radiation of short wavelenghts emitted by the nucleus of an atom during nuclear reaction
4/23/2003 beta rays electrons ejected from radioactive substances traveling slightly faster than light
4/24/2003 tracer an element or compound that has been made radioactive so that it can be followed in biologic processes
4/25/2003 counter a devise for making radiation measurements or counting ionizing events
4/28/2003 collimator absorbing material designed to define the size and direction of a beam of radiation
4/29/2003 LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
4/30/2003 lasser a device that transforms visible light into a small nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation

May 2003        "I'm scared!"

Date Word Definition
5/1/2003 phobia any persistant abnormal dread or fear
5/2/2003 agoraphobia fear of large open spaces
5/5/2003 ailurophobia fear of cats
5/6/2003 algophobia fear of experiencing or witnessing pain
5/7/2003 anemophobia fear of winds or drafts
5/8/2003 ataxiophobia fear of disorder / disorganization
5/9/2003 cardiophobia fear of heart disease
5/12/2003 claustrophobia fear of confined spaces
5/13/2003 erythrophobia fear of blushing or the fear of the color red
5/14/2003 gynophobia fear of women
5/15/2003 hemophobia fear of blood
5/16/2003 hydrophobia rabies
5/19/2003 iatrophobia fear of physicians
5/20/2003 onomatophobia dread or fear of hearing a certain name or word
5/21/2003 pedophobia fear of children
5/22/2003 photophobia fear of light 
5/23/2003 phlebotophobia fear of needles or giving blood
5/26/2003 somnilophobia fear of sleeping
5/27/2003 tocophobia fear of childbirth
5/28/2003 toxicophobia fear of poisons
5/29/2003 urophobia fear of passing urine
5/30/2003 verminophobia fear of worms

June 2003        "I've got you under my skin"

Date Word Definition
6/2/2003 skin the outer covering of the body
6/3/2003 epidermis the outer most non-vascular layer of skin, made of 5 layers
6/4/2003 dermis the layer of skin under the epidermis, consists of dense vascular connective tissue
6/5/2003 basal layer deepest layer of epidermis composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly
6/6/2003 spinus layer above basal cells in epidermis, composed of rounded or polygonal pigmented cells
6/9/2003 granular layer above spinus cells in epidermis, composed of flattened granular cells
6/10/2003 clear layer above granular cells in epidermis, composed of several layers of transparent nucleated cells
6/11/2003 cornified layer top most layer of epidermis, composed of flattened cells containing keratin
6/12/2003 keritin a very insoluble protein, the principal constituent of epidermis, hair, nails
6/13/2003 dermatitis inflammation of the skin
6/16/2003 dermatosis any disease of the skin
6/17/2003 dermatology medical specialty concerned with diseases of the skin
6/18/2003 pigment any normal or abnormal coloring matter of the body
6/19/2003 melanin a dark amorphous pigment of the skin, hair and some tumors
6/20/2003 erythema redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries
6/23/2003 abrasion an area of the body surface denuded of skin by an abnormal mechanical process
6/24/2003 cutaneous pertaining to the skin
6/25/2003 subcutaneous beneath the skin
6/26/2003 hair a filamentous appendage of the skin consisting of keratin
6/27/2003 pilus a hair
6/30/2003 pilology the study of the hair

July 2003        The Latin name is..."

Date Word Definition
7/1/2003 Mus musculus mouse
7/2/2003 Rattus norvegicus rat
7/3/2003 Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster
7/7/2003 Meriones unguiculatus Mongolian gerbil
7/8/2003 Cavia porcellus guinea pig
7/9/2003 Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbit
7/10/2003 Gallus domesticus chicken
7/11/2003 Danio rerio zebrafish
7/14/2003 Xenopus laevis African clawed frog
7/15/2003 Rana catesbeiana American bullfrog
7/16/2003 Macaca mulatta rhesus monkey
7/17/2003 Gymnocephalus cernuus ruffe
7/18/2003 Typhlonectes natans caecillian
7/21/2003 Carassius auratus auratus gold fish
7/22/2003 Passer domesticus house sparrow
7/23/2003 Sylvilagus floridanus eastern cottontail
7/24/2003 Canis familiaris dog
7/25/2003 Felis domesticus  cat
7/28/2003 Didelphis virginiana opossum
7/29/2003 Hyla versicolor grey treefrog
7/30/2003 Tamias striatus Eastern Chipmunk
7/31/2003 Callinectes sapidus blue crab

August 2003        "You are jumping on my last nerve!"

Date Word Definition
8/1/2003 nerve a collection of nerve fibers bound together by connective tissue sheaths
8/4/2003 neuron basic component of nerve tissue consisting of a cell body and one or more processes
8/5/2003 axon one type of nerve process carries impulses from the cell body to the next cell
8/6/2003 dendrite another type of nerve process that receives impulses on the surface of a neuron
8/7/2003 myelin sheath the protective covering of axons made of proteins and lipids
8/8/2003 nerve fiber the axon with its sheath
8/11/2003 nodes of Ranvier  constrictions in the myelin sheath
8/12/2003 Nissl bodies RNA granuals present in cell bodies of neurons
8/13/2003 synapse the point of contact between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another
8/14/2003 nerve root attaches nerve to spinal cord
8/15/2003 CNS central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
8/18/2003 spinal cord part of the C.N.S. consisting of nerves and neurons enclosed in 3 membranes
8/19/2003 meninges protective membranes
8/20/2003 cerebrospinal fluid circulates around the cord & brain providing a water cushion & shock absorber for the nerve tissue
8/21/2003 brain the major part of the C.N.S., consisting of 3 parts
8/22/2003 cerebellum the part of the brain that serves as the reflex center for coordination of muscular movements
8/25/2003 cerebrum the largest part of the brain divided into 2 hemispheres by a deep groove
8/26/2003 brain stem continuation of the spinal cord to the brain, controls heart/respiration/swallowing/vasomotor activity
8/27/2003 ventricles four fluid filled spaces in the brain, 2 lateral, 3rd and 4th ventricles
8/28/2003 gray matter consists mainly of cell bodies of neurons
8/29/2003 cerebral cortex the surface of the cerebrum, composed of gray matter and arranged in folds

September 2003        "The abbreviation stands for..."

Date Word Definition
9/2/2003 BALB/c Bagg Albino - inbred albino mice ( general purpose)
9/3/2003 NCr nu/nu Athymic nude (hairless) mice from a BALB/c background (cancer studies)
9/4/2003 SCID Severe Combined ImmunoDeficient mouse- hairless (cancer studies)
9/5/2003 ICR Institute of Cancer Research - an outbred albino mouse (general purpose/ toxicology)
9/8/2003 C57BL Black inbred mouse - most popular inbred strain, used as the "standard" (general purpose)
9/9/2003 DBA Dilute brown non-Agouti - inbred - from CCLittle's stock breeding for coat color oldest inbred strain
9/10/2003 DSH Domestic Short Hair cat - outbred - (neurology/sleep disorders/parasitology)
9/11/2003 SD Sprague Dawley rat - most popular outbred albino rat (toxicology/general purpose use)
9/12/2003 LE Long-Evans rat - an outbred hooded rat (diet studies)
9/15/2003 F344 Fisher 344 rat - inbred albino rat (carcinogenic studies/ cancer)Fisher 344 rat - inbred albino rat (carcinogenic studies/ cancer)
9/16/2003 LW LOBUND-Wistar inbred rat developed at UND by Dr. Morris Pollard (prostate cancer)
9/17/2003 ZU Zucker rat - mutant with 4 color variations (genetic obesity/diabetes studies)
9/18/2003 SYR Golden Syrian hamster - brown and white (toxicology/carcinogenesis/behavior studies)
9/19/2003 NZW New Zealand White rabbit - albino (antibody/toxicology/tetratology studies)
9/22/2003 DU Dutch rabbit - black and white belted (antibody production/toxicology studies)
9/23/2003 DH Dunkin Hartley guinea pig - albino outbred strain (general purpose)
9/24/2003 MON Mongolian Gerbil - agouti (epilepsy/nutrition/oncology studies)
9/25/2003 COP Copenhagen 2331 rat - brown hooded inbred ( middle ear disease/ breeding partner for cogenic strains)
9/26/2003 WIST Wistar rat - outbred albino developed at the Wistar Institute (drug development/ safety studies)
9/29/2003 WU Wistar Unilever rat - outbred albino developes few spontaneous tumors (general purpose)
9/30/2003 DOBE Domesticated beagle - outbred - (cardiac/ circulatory studies)

October 2003    "Derivitives"

Date Word Definition
10/1/2003 bovine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from cattle
10/2/2003 piscine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from fish
10/3/2003 canine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from dogs
10/6/2003 cervine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from deer
10/7/2003 ovine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from sheep
10/8/2003 porcine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from swine
10/9/2003 phocine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from seals
10/10/2003 caprine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from goats
10/13/2003 oscine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from songbirds
10/14/2003 aquiline pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from eagles
10/15/2003 leonine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from lions
10/16/2003 ranine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from frogs
10/17/2003 ursine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from bears
10/20/2003 murine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from mice
10/21/2003 vulpine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from fox
10/22/2003 asinine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from donkeys
10/23/2003 lacertine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from lizards
10/24/2003 equine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from horses
10/27/2003 leporine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from rabbits
10/28/2003 feline pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from cats
10/29/2003 herpestine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from mongooses
10/30/2003 lupine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from wolves
10/31/2003 viperine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from poisonous snakes

November 2003        "What do you call it when..."

Date Word Definition
11/3/2003 debridement removal of dead tissues from a wound
11/4/2003 triage the evaluation and classification of injuries for purposes of treatment
11/5/2003 irrigate to wash out, to flush a wound clean using a solution
11/6/2003 acute of short duration or rapid onset
11/7/2003 chronic lasting a long time, ongoing
11/10/2003 crepitus a crackling sound in soft tissues or bones
11/11/2003 fever elevation of body temperature above the normal range
11/12/2003 fracture a break in bone or cartilege
11/13/2003 edema swelling of soft tissue due to excess fluid accumulation
11/14/2003 hemorrhage bleeding or the abnormal flow of blood
11/17/2003 symptom any subjective evidence of disease that only the patient perceives
11/18/2003 sign any objective evidence of disease
11/19/2003 diagnosis determining the nature or cause of a disease
11/20/2003 prognosis the probable outcome or course of a disease
11/21/2003 dehydration excessive loss of body water
11/24/2003 lethargy abnormal drowsiness or stupor
11/25/2003 comatose a state of deep unarousable unconsciousness
11/26/2003 necrotic dead cells or tissues
11/27/2003 nystagmus rapid rhythmic involuntary eye movements
11/28/2003 syncope partial or complete loss of consciousness, fainting

December 2003        "Cut it out!"

Date Word Definition
12/1/2003 excision surgical cutting away
12/2/2003 excision biopsy removal of the entire lesion for gross & microscopic examination
12/3/2003 incision surgical cutting
12/4/2003 incision biopsy removal of part of a lesion for gross & microscopic examination
12/5/2003 dissection to divide into separate parts, cut into pieces, expose internal organs
12/8/2003 necropsy the post-mortem examination of an animal
12/9/2003 amputate to cut off or remove an appendage
12/10/2003 -ectomy removal of an anatomic organ
12/11/2003 -tomy a cutting operation
12/12/2003 -stomy a permanent or semi-permanent surgical opening into a cavity or organ
12/15/2003 -aplotomy a simple incision
12/16/2003 venesection the operation of cutting open a vein for bloodletting or insertion of a catheter
12/17/2003 cut a narrow wound made by a sharp edge
12/18/2003 laceration a cut, usually an injury
12/19/2003 stab to puncture with a pointed instrument such as a scalpel or knife
12/22/2003 shear to cut or sever with scissors from a surface
12/23/2003 avulsion the tearing away of flesh as occurs in mechanical injuries

January 2004        "You need more than a cutting remark."

Date Word Definition
1/5/2004 scalpel a small knife with a thin, sharp blade used by surgeons
1/6/2004 lancet a sharp-pointed two-edged instrument used for cutting open veins or abscesses
1/7/2004 curette a spoon shaped instrument with a sharp edge for cutting/scraping the interior walls of a cavity
1/8/2004 trephine a hand turned cylindrical saw for cutting holes in bone especially the skull
1/9/2004 gorget a cutting instrument used to remove stones from a bladder
1/12/2004 -tome a word termination signifying an instrument for cutting
1/13/2004 tenotome a slender knife used in the division of a tendon
1/14/2004 uvulatome a sharp knife used to remove the uvula
1/15/2004 keratome a cutting instrument for dividing the cornea
1/16/2004 microtome a device used for cutting sections from embedded tissues for light or electron microscopy
1/19/2004 bronchotome an instrument for cutting into the bronchial tubes
1/20/2004 electrotome a surgical cutting instrument that uses electricity to make a cut
1/21/2004 cutery knife a surgical cutting instrument that coagulates with electric current while cutting
1/22/2004 rongeur an instrument for removing small rough portions of bone
1/23/2004 trochar a sharp-pointed instrument with a cannula to puncture the wall of a body cavity
1/26/2004 scalpel blade a sharp, thin tool with a convex cutting edge
1/27/2004 gigli's wire a flexible wire with saw teeth
1/28/2004 saw a cutting instrument with a serrated edge
1/29/2004 chisel a cutting instrument with a beveled edge for smoothing a surface
1/30/2004 laser knife a laser light used to cut tissue

February 2004        "My heart belongs to you"

Date Word Definition
2/2/2004 heart the muscular organ responsible for the pumping of blood
2/3/2004 atrium a chamber affording entrance into a lower chamber of the heart
2/4/2004 left atrium on the upper left of the heart, receives blood from the lungs & pumps it to the left ventricle
2/5/2004 right atrium on the upper right of the heart, receives blood from the vena cava & pumps to the right ventricle
2/6/3004 ventricles a pair of cavities with thick muscular walls that make up the bulk of the heart
2/9/2004 left ventricle the cavity of the heart that propels blood out through the aorta into the systemic arteries
2/10/2004 right ventricle the cavity of the heart that propels blood through the pumonary trunk into the lungs
2/11/2004 valve a membranous fold that prevents reflux of the contents passing through it
2/12/2004 cusp a tapering projection or structure
2/13/2004 tricuspid valve the valve between the right atrium and ventricle made of 3 cusps;atrioventricular valve
2/16/2004 bicuspid valve the valve between the left atrium and ventricle made of 2 cusps; mitrial valve
2/17/2004 pulmonary valve the valve in the right ventricle to the lungs, preventing backflow; semilunar valve right
2/18/2004 aortic valve the valve in the left ventricle to the aorta, preventing backflow; semilunar valve left
2/19/2004 pericardium the fibrous sac that surrounds the heart
2/20/2004 endocardium the endothelial lining of the heart
2/23/2004 aorta the main trunk from which the systemic arterial system proceeds
2/24/2004 vena cava the venous trunk which receives blood from upper & lower body & delivers to rt. atrium
2/25/2004 systole the contraction or period of contraction of the heart especially the ventricles
2/26/2004 diastole the dilation or period of dilation of the heart, especially the ventricles
2/27/2004 heart burn a burning sensation behind the sternum caused by acid reflux into the esophagus

March 2004        "Know your conversions."

Date Word Definition (Conversion)
3/1/2004 kg to lbs 1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds (lb)
3/2/2004 oz to g 1 ounce (oz) = 28.4 grams (g)
3/3/2004 lbs to g 1 pound (lb) = 454 grams (g)
3/4/2004 fl. oz to ml 1 fluid ounce (fl. oz) = 30 milliliters (ml)
3/5/2004 qt to ml 1 quart (qt) = 946 milliliters (ml) 
3/8/2004 in to cm 1 inch (in) = 2.54 centimeters (cm)
3/9/2004 M to in 1 meter (M) = 39.3 inches (in)
3/10/2004 in to mm 1 inch (in) = 25.4 milimeters (mm)
3/11/2004 kg to g 1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams (g)
3/12/2004 g to mg 1 gram (g) = 1000 milligrams (mg)
3/15/2004 L to ml 1liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (ml)
3/16/2004 °C to °F °C (Celsius or Centigrade)= (5/9x(°F(Fahrenheit) -32) 
3/17/2004 °F to °C °F (Fahrenheit) = (9/5x°C(Celsius or Centigrade)) +32 
3/18/2004 g to oz 1 gram (g) = 0.03527 ounces (oz) 
3/19/2004 M to yds 1 meter (M) = 1.0936 yards (yd)
3/22/2004 gr to mg 1 grain (gr) = 64.8 milligrams (mg)
3/23/2004 L to gal 1 liter (L) = 0.264 gallons (gal)
3/24/2004 ft to M 1 foot (ft) = 0.3048 meters (M)
3/25/2004 dl to ml 1 deciliter (dl) = 100 milliliters (ml)
3/26/2004 ml to cc 1 milliliter (ml) = 1 cubic centimeter (cc) 
3/29/2004 Km to mi 1 kilometer (Km) = 0.621 miles (mi) 
3/30/2004 t to ml 1 teaspoon (t) = 5 milliliters (ml)
3/31/2004 T to ml 1 Tablespoon (T) = 15 milliliters (ml)                                                                                                                                             

April 2004     "Fun Conversions"

Date Word Definition 
4/1/2004 Ratio of an igloo's circumference to its diameter: Eskimo Pi
4/2/2004 2000 pounds of Chinese soup: Won ton
4/5/2004 1 millionth of a mouthwash:  1 microScope
4/6/2004 Time between slipping on a peel and smacking the pavement: 1 bananosecond
4/7/2004 Weight an evangelist carries with God: 1 billigram
4/8/2004 Time it takes to sail 220 yards at 1 nautical mile per hour:  Knot-furlong
4/9/2004 365.25 days of drinking lite beer: 1 Lite year
4/12/2004 16.5 feet in the Twilight Zone:  1 Rod Serling
4/13/2004 Half of a large intestine: 1 semicolon
4/14/2004 1000 aches: 1 kilohurtz
4/15/2004 Basic unit of laryngitis:  1 hoarsepower
4/16/2004 Shortest distance between two jokes: A straight line
4/19/2004 1 million microphones: 1 megaphone
4/20/2004 1 million bicycles 2 megacycles
4/21/2004 2000 mockinbirds: Two kilomockingbirds
4/22/2004 10 cards: 1 decacards
4/23/2004 1 kilogram of falling figs: 1 Fig Newton
4/26/2004 1000 cubic centimeters of wet socks: 1 liter hosen
4/27/2004 1 millionth of a fish: 1 microfiche
4/28/2004 1 trillion pins: 1 terrapin
4/29/2004 10 rations: 1 decoration
4/30/2004 100 rations: 1 C-ration

May 2004        "Gesundheit"

Date Word Definition
5/3/2004 antigen a substance capable of inducing the formation of antibodies and reacting with the antibodies so produced
5/4/2004 antibody an immunoglobulin molecule with an specific aminoacid sequence that reacts only with the antigen that induced its synthesis
5/5/2004 allergy a hypersensitive state aquired by exposure to a particular antigen, reexposure results in an altered capacity to react
5/6/2004 allergen a protein or non-protein capable of inducing hypersensitivity
5/7/2004 atopy  a clinincal hypersensitive state with a hereditary predisposition
5/10/2004 anaphylaxis an exaggerated allergic response caused by an antigen-antibody reaction
5/11/2004 histamine produced by mast cells and basophils and act as a mediator of immediate hypersensitivity
5/12/2004 antihistamine a drug that counteracts the action of histamine
5/13/2004 desensitize to remove antibody from sensitized cells for the purpose of preventing allergy or anaphylaxis
5/14/2004 contact allergy a hypersensitive skin reaction caused by dermal contact with an allergen
5/17/2004 food allergy a hypersensitive reaction caused by the ingestion of certain foods or drugs, usually manifested by skin reaction
5/18/2004 induced allergy allergy resulting from the injection, contact or infection with an antigen
5/19/2004 lacrimation the secretion and discharge of tears
5/20/2004 erythema a redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion
5/21/2004 sneeze an involuntary, sudden, violent and audible expulsion of air through the nose and mouth
5/24/2004 sternutation the act of sneezing
5/25/2004 conjunctivitis inflammation of the membranes that line the eye lids and sclera
5/26/2004 pruritis an unpleasant cutaneous sensation that provokes the desire to scratch or rub the skin
5/27/2004 urticaria a vascular reaction of the skin with the formation of smooth, raised, red patches attended by severe itching
5/28/2004 allergic dermatitis any inflammation of the skin believed to be caused by allergy
5/31/2004 nasal sinusitis an inflammation of the nasal sinuses

June 2004        "Take a walk on the wild side!"

Date Word Definition
6/1/2004 ambulation the act of walking
6/2/2004 locomotion movement, the ability to move from one place to another
6/3/2004 brachiation locomotion by means of the hands and arms
6/5/2004 walking locomotion by means of the legs and feet
6/7/2004 somnambulation walking while asleep
6/8/2004 tiptoe walking on the balls of the feet
6/9/2004 staggering an unsteady gait marked by loss of balance
6/10/2004 crawling movement on the hands and knees
6/11/2004 waltzing forward locomotion with a pronounced side-to-side body motion
6/14/2004 ataxia failure of muscle coordination
6/15/2004 hoof the foot of an ungulate, with a hard, horny casing of the foot or ends of the digits
6/16/2004 unguligrade walking or running on the tips of one or two digits of each limb
6/17/2004 plantar pertaining to the sole of the foot
6/18/2004 plantigrade walking on the full sole of the foot ex. Man, bear
6/21/2004 pedionalgia pain in the sole of the foot
6/22/2004 flexion the act of bending
6/23/2004 extension a movement that brings the members of a limb into a straight line
6/24/2004 adduction  the act of moving toward the median plane of the body or axial line of the limb
6/25/2004 abduction  the act of moving away from the median plane of the body or axial line of the limb
6/28/2004 footdrop dropping of the foot from paralysis of the anterior muscles of the leg
6/29/2004 pediferous having feet
6/30/2004 paw the foot of a mammal, usually covered with hair, having calloused pads on the plantar surface

July 2004        "She runs hot and cold."

Date Word Definition
7/1/2004 body temperature the temperature of the body under normal conditions
7/2/2004 basal temperature the temperature of the body under conditions of absolute rest
7/6/2004 fever elevation of body temperature above the normal
7/7/2004 pyrexia fever
7/8/2004 pyro- a combining form meaning heat or fire
7/9/2004 pyrogen a fever producing substance
7/12/2004 pyrogenic inducing fever
7/13/2004 pyrosis heart burn, a burning sensation in the esophagus and stomach
7/14/2004 thermometer an instrument to measure temperatures
7/15/2004 hyperthermia abnormally high body temperature, especially if induced for therapeutic reasons
7/16/2004 hyperthermalgesia abnormal increased sensitivity to heat
7/19/2004 thermalgesia a condition where the application of heat produces pain
7/20/2004 thermal injury an injury caused by heat or heated objects
7/21/2004 homiothermic an animal that maintains a constant body temperature despite environmental temperatures
7/22/2004 warm-blooded an animal that is homiothermic
7/23/2004 endothermic characterized by or accompanied by the absorbtion of heat
7/26/2004 exothermic characterized by or accompanied by the evolution or release of heat
7/27/2004 antipyretic relieving or reducing fever
7/28/2004 antipyrotic substance therapeutically effective against burns
7/29/2004 pyromania obsessive preoccupation with fires
7/30/2004 pyrolysis decomposition of organic substances under the influence of a rise in temperature

August 2004        "What route?"

Date Word Definition
8/2/2004 oral given by mouth
8/3/2004 gavage given through a tube passed through the mouth and into the stomach
8/4/2004 lavage liquid passed into and out of an organ (stomach or bowel) to wash it out
8/5/2004 transepidermal absorbed through the epidermis
8/6/2004 subcutaneous placed beneath the skin
8/9/2004 intradermal placed within the dermis
8/10/2004 intranasal placed within the nose
8/11/2004 sublingual placed under the tongue
8/12/2004 topical applied to the skin surface
8/13/2004 injectable the act of forcing a liquid into a part of the body
8/16/2004 parenteral given by injection
8/17/2004 intravenous administered into a vein
8/18/2004 intraosseous placed into a bone
8/19/2004 epidural placed outside the dura of the spinal cord or brain
8/20/2004 intracardiac administered into the heart
8/23/2004 intratracheal placed within the trachea
8/24/2004 intraperitoneal administered into the peritoneal cavity
8/25/2004 intraocular placed into the eye
8/26/2004 intramuscular administered into a muscle
8/27/2004 transplacental crossing or given through the palcenta
8/30/2004 rectal placed into the rectum
8/31/2004 intercostal the space between two adjacent ribs

September 2004        "It's getting hot in here..."

Date Word Definition
9/1/2004 sweat to excrete moisture from the pores of the skin, the liquid excreted
9/2/2004 perspiration sweat
9/3/2004 antiperspirant a compound having an inhibitory action on the secretion of sweat
9/7/2004 hidrosis the production and excretion of sweat
9/8/2004 idrosis the production and excretion of sweat
9/9/2004 diaphoresis profuse perspiration
9/10/2004 sudoresis profuse perspiration
9/13/2004 sudorific a drug or compound that causes sweating
9/14/2004 diaphoretic a drug or compound that causes sweating
9/15/2004 hyperhidrosis excessive sweating
9/16/2004 antihidrotic an antiperspirant
9/17/2004 hypohydrosis abnormally diminished sweating
9/20/2004 hematohidrosis sweating blood, a rare condition occurring with extreme levels of stress
9/21/2004 dehydration a condition resulting from excessive loss of body water
9/22/2004 rehydration restoring fluid content to a body  which is dehydrated
9/23/2004 hydration a condition of having adequate fluid in the body tissues
9/24/2004 hyperhydration excess water content in the body due to IV administration of large amounts of glucose
9/27/2004 water intoxication condition caused by retention of water with the depletion of sodium
9/28/2004 fluid therapy therapy to restore the volume and composition of body fluids to normal
9/29/2004 fluid retention abnormal accumulation of fluid in cells, tissues or body cavity
9/30/2004 diuretic a compound increasing excretion of urine to increase loss of fluid and sodium from the body

October 2004        "Medical Colors"

Date Word Definition
10/1/2004 cyanosis a bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen in the blood
10/4/2004 jaundice a yellowish pigmentation of tissues and body fluids caused by deposition of bile pigments
10/5/2004 purpura a hemorrhagic state with purplish skin patches from blood leaking into the surrounding tissues
10/6/2004 erythema abnormal redness of the skin due to capillary congestion
10/7/2004 lipemic the presence of fats or lipids in the blood causing a milky apperance of the serum
10/8/2004 melanin a brownish-black pigment normally found in skin, hair and parts of the eye
10/11/2004 icterus a yellowish pigmentation of tissues and body fluids caused by deposition of bile pigments
10/12/2004 cyanopsia a condition in which all objects appear blue; may follow cataract removal
10/13/2004 hemolysis lysis of RBCs liberating hemoglobin causing a pink appearance to the blood serum
10/14/2004 blanch the withdrawal of blood from the tissues which leaves them white
10/15/2004 café au lait a pigmented cutaneous lesion that ranges from light to dark brown
10/18/2004 sallow having a yellowish color to the skin
10/19/2004 petechiae small red spots on the skin that usually indicate a low platelet count
10/20/2004 flushed to become suddenly suffused with color due to vasodilation
10/21/2004 hyaline clear, transparent and granule free
10/22/2004 blackhead a dark topped plug of fatty material in the opening of a hair follicule or skin pore
10/25/2004 flavedo having a yellowish color to the skin
10/26/2004 strawberry mark red or purple colored skin markings that develop shortly after birth
10/27/2004 blush brief erythema of the face and neck
10/28/2004 frosted inflammed serous membrane resulting in a thick, opaque white or gray-white coating
10/29/2004 cartenemia excessive carotene in the blood that can cause a yellow-orange coloration of the skin

November 2004        "What color do you call that cat?"

Date Word Definition
11/1/2004 tortoiseshell orange, black and cream coat where there are not distinct areas of color
11/2/2004 tabby dark lines on lighter coat, tiger, mackerel, striped=stripes, maculate,spotted= spotted lines, classic,blotched=swirled lines
11/3/2004 bi-color white coat with a second color that is over 50%, also called piebald, magpie, van
11/4/2004 color point a pale coat with darker extremities (face, ears, legs and tail) point colors are seal, chocolate, blue, lilac, flame, frost
11/5/2004 calico orange, black and white coat distinct areas of color, sex linked to females also called chintz
11/8/2004 harlequin white coat with a second color that is less than 50%
11/9/2004 chinchilla white fur with colored tips
11/10/2004 orange a dark orange color, also called ginger, marmalade, red, flame (for a colorpoint)
11/11/2004 white a solid white that masks all other colors
11/12/2004 black a pure black also called jet, ebony
11/15/2004 seal a dark brown color also called sable
11/16/2004 blue  light to dark gray, a dilute of black
11/17/2004 lilac a pinkish gray color a dilute of blue, also called lavendar
11/18/2004 chocolate a medium to dark brown color, also called chestnut
11/19/2004 cinnamon a red-brown color also called sorrel, auburn, caramel
11/22/2004 agouti individual hairs are banded with colors, also called ticked
11/23/2004 smoke pale fur with extensive dark tips, also called shaded, golden=light yellow with red tips, silver=pale gray with gray tips
11/24/2004 shell pale fur with dark on only extreme tips
11/29/2004 brown a dark brown caused by a reduction of black also called sepia, mink
11/30/2004 cameo a chinchilla with red tips

December 2004    "A horse of a different color"

Date Word Definition
12/1/2004 bay brown body with black mane,tail,muzzle, legs and ear tips
12/2/2004 gray white or gray hair on black skin
12/3/2004 white white hair on pink skin
12/6/2004 chestnut reddish brown hair with mane,tail, legs, ears the same color as the body also called sorrel
12/7/2004 black pure black coats with no signs of other colors
12/8/2004 dun yellow to brown coat with darker legs, dark mane and tail and a dark stripe down the middle of the back
12/9/2004 buckskin yellow to tan coat with black legs, mane, ears and tail and no stripe down the back
12/10/2004 palomino gold colored coat with white to light cream mane and tail
12/13/2004 cremello gold colored coat with white to light cream mane and tail, blue eyes - a dilute of palomino
12/14/2004 perlino gold colored coat with white to light cream mane and tail, blue eyes - a dilute of buckskin
12/15/2004 grullo mouse gray hair with dark dorsal stripe, stripes on shoulders, and black stripes on lower legs
12/16/2004 roan solid dark coat with single white hairs mixed in, mane and tail remain dark
12/17/2004 leopard large dark spots all over a lighter coat
12/20/2004 snowflake  large white spots all over a dark coat
12/21/2004 marble small patches of dark hair sprinkled on a light coat
12/22/2004 frost small patches of light hair sprinkled on a dark coat
12/23/2004 blanket white hair over hips and loins on a dark horse- with or without spots

January 2005    "How do you describe that dog?"

Date Word Definition
1/3/2005 solid a coat of a single color
1/4/2005 roan a pattern of intermingled white and colored hairs on the body
1/5/2005 ticked a pattern of small pigmented spots on a white or roan background
1/6/2005 belton ticked in the English Setter
1/7/2005 bi-color black or brown with white (not tan)
1/10/2005 blue gray
1/11/2005 chocolate brown ranging from light to reddish
1/12/2005 brindle a pattern of alternating stripes of yellow/black, red/black, cream/gray
1/13/2005 harlequin a pattern of ragged black spots on a white background
1/14/2005 red a brown ranging from dark brown to reddish to dark orange
1/17/2005 blenheim a red coat with white markings
1/18/2005 Irish spotting a pattern of white markings -white undersides, white sides, white collar
1/19/2005 liver red
1/20/2005 mask a pattern where the face is pigmented black or dark brown
1/21/2005 merle a two-tone pattern which is swirled or patchy with or without white markings
1/24/2005 kisses a pattern with lighter markings, usually tan, on the eyebrows, nares, and ears
1/25/2005 tricolor a combination of white, black/brown and red in patches
1/26/2005 piebald random spots of color on a white coat
1/27/2005 dilution an effect on a coat color that causes it to be a paler shade
1/28/2005 eumelanin a melanin pigment that results in a shade of black or brown coloration
1/31/2005 phaeomelanin a melanin pigment that results in a shade of red, orange, gold or yellow coloration

February 2005    "What color is that rabbit?"

Date Word Definition
2/1/2005 black the hair shaft is dark black
2/2/2005 blue medium or dark gray
2/3/2005 seal dark (almost black) gray brown
2/4/2005 chocolate deep dark brown hair
2/7/2005 red rich red-brown coat color
2/8/2005 orange light to bright orange coat color
2/9/2005 cinnamon rust or reddish brown hair color
2/10/2005 cream hair is pinkish beige to light tan
2/11/2005 lilac hair coat is pinkish pale gray
2/14/2005 pearl an undercoat color of light creamy gray
2/15/2005 fawn light to bright orange hair with a white underside
2/16/2005 black otter black body with lighter underside, hair must be orange tinted at at the border of the black and lighter color
2/17/2005 sable head and ears are black-brown gradually shading to a body of light brown
2/18/2005 agouti a pattern with 3 bands of color on the hair shafts
2/21/2005 brown-gray agouti blue at base of hair, charcoal in the middle, tan at the tip
2/22/2005 sandy agouti with reddish orange at base, beige at the middle, black tips, same as castor
2/23/2005 chinchilla agouti with dark gray or black at base, white at the middle, black tips
2/24/2005 ticking solid or tipped guard hairs different than the main coat throughout the coat
2/25/2005 blue steel medium or dark gray coat with light gray or tan guard hairs
2/28/2005 tortoiseshell hair is light orange/yellow a gray undercoat

March 2005        "What color is that rat?"

Date Word Definition
3/1/2005 beige light warm tan, dark red eyes
3/2/2005 black deep lustrous black, devoid of rustiness or white hairs, black eyes
3/3/2005 brown solid dark brown, black eyes
3/4/2005 blue slate grey, as dark as possible with no brown patches or silvering, dark red or black eyes
3/7/2005 champagne very light beige with a pinkish cast, with no suggestion of dullness or grayness, red eyes
3/8/2005 chocolate deep rich chocolate brown, with no trace of redness, devoid of dinginess and silvering, black eyes
3/9/2005 coffee  light brown, similar to coffee with cream; not to be confused with beige, dark red or black eyes
3/10/2005 lilac medium dove gray, mixed with brown, dark red or black eyes
3/11/2005 platinum even dove gray, with no blue, devoid of dinginess or silvering, red to dark red eyes
3/14/2005 silver off white with a cool ice blue cast, red eyes
3/15/2005 mink even grey-brown, devoid of dinginess, silvering or patches, and having a distinct bluish sheen, black eyes
3/16/2005 powder blue medium gray, lighter than slate gray, with no brown patches or silvering, red to dark red eyes
3/17/2005 Russian blue very dark slate gray with dark ticking throughout, black eyes
3/18/2005 white as white as possible, devoid of creamy tinge or staining, black eyes
3/21/2005 albino as white as possible, devoid of creamy tinge or staining, pink eyes
3/22/2005 hairless hairless as possible; have bright translucent healthy skin, any color eyes
3/23/2005 agouti banded hair with dark gray at base, redish brown at middle, black tip, black eyes
3/24/2005 amber light golden orange, evenly interspersed with light hairs; belly color is light, but not white, red eyes
3/25/2005 fawn deep golden orange as dark as possible; belly color is slightly lighter, dark red eyes
3/28/2005 chinchilla banded hair with dark gray at base, light gray at middle, black guard hairs throughout coat, black eyes
3/29/2005 himalayan white coat with dark black-brown points (face, ears, tail, feet  & legs), any color eyes
3/30/2005 hooded hooded                a light color coat with dark color on head, throat, chest, shoulders, and along spine, any color eyes
3/31/2005 capped a white rat with a dark color on the head from the ears to the curve of the jaw but not the chin, any color eyes

April 2005        "What does that word mean on the Vet Log form?"

Date Word Definition
4/1/2005 dermatitis inflammation of the skin
4/4/2005 emaciation excessive leanness of the body, a wasted condition
4/5/2005 exania prolapse of the rectum
4/6/2005 paraphimosis retraction of the prepuce around the penis causing swelling
4/7/2005 hyperesthesia abnormal increased sensitivity of the skin
4/8/2005 hyperactivity a sustained increase above normal activity
4/11/2005 dyspnea difficulty breathing
4/12/2005 anorexia loss of appetite
4/13/2005 malocclusion upper and lower incisors do not meet causing overgrowth of teeth and difficulty eatin/drinking
4/14/2005 dehydration excessive loss of body water
4/15/2005 diarrhea abnormal frequency and liquidity of fecal discharges
4/18/2005 lethargic a condition of drowsiness ot indifference
4/19/2005 paresis weakness and partial loss of voluntary muscle movement
4/20/2005 paralysis complete loss of voluntary muscle movement
4/21/2005 hypothermia low body temperature
4/22/2005 erythema redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries
4/25/2005 excoriation superficial loss of skin such as that caused by excessive scratching
4/26/2005 pruitis itching, an unpleasant cutaneous sensation that provokes the desire to scratch or rub the skin
4/27/2005 conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva
4/28/2005 blepharitis inflammation of the eyelids
4/29/2005 alopecia absence of hair from areas where it is normally present

May 2005    "I feel greasy."

Date Word Definition
5/2/2005 cholesterol a fatlike monatomic alcohol, found in animal fats/oils
5/3/2005 cholesterosis condition where cholesterol is deposited in tissues in abnormal quantities
5/4/2005 HDL High - density Lipoprotein, "good" cholesterol - carries cholesterol from arteries back to liver for recycling
5/5/2005 LDL  Low - density Lipoprotein, "bad" cholesterol - can build up in arteries and increase risk of heart disease
5/6/2005 cholesterin commercially prepared cholesterol used in the pharmaceutical/cosmetic industries
5/9/2005 lipid organic substances insoluble in water, but soluble in fat solvents, have a greasy feel
5/10/2005 cerumen a waxlike secretion found in the external ear
5/11/2005 fatty acids a long hydrocarbon chain capped by a carboxyl group (COOH), building block of triglycerides
5/12/2005 essential fatty acids fatty acids that the body cannot produce and must be provided in the diet
5/13/2005 omega-3 fatty acids volatile essential fatty acids found in fish
5/16/2005 triglyceride three fatty acids bound to glycerol, groups of triglycerides form fats
5/17/2005 saturated fat solid or mostly solid at room temperature, the fatty acid hydrocarbon chain is saturated with hydrogen atoms
5/18/2005 hydrogenated fat an oil that has been chemically processed to become more solid/stable at room temperature
5/19/2005 trans-fatty acids unsaturated fats are hydrogenated, rearranging & shifting the double bonds to convert to the trans configuration
5/20/2005 unsaturated fat liquid at room temperature, derived from plants, the fatty acid hydrocarbon chain has hydrogen atoms missing
5/23/2005 monounsaturated fat has one double bond instead of a hydrogen on the fatty acid hydrocarbon chain
5/24/2005 polyunsaturated fat has more than one double bond instead of a hydrogen on the fatty acid hydrocarbon chain
5/25/2005 shea butter a fat extracted from the Shea tree nut from Africa- used as a moisturizer in cosmetics
5/26/2005 cocoa butter a fat extracted from the ripe seed kernel of Theobroma cacao used as a moisturizer in cosmetics
5/27/2005 lanolin a purified fatlike substance from sheep's wool - used as an ointment base
5/30/2005 petrolatum a purified mix of semisolid hydrocarbons from petroleum - used as an ointment base
5/31/2005 oil a combustible substance in a liquid form from animals, minerals or vegetables

June 2005    "That's a fancy mouse!"

Date Word Definition
6/1/2005 black dark solid black, eye black
6/2/2005 blue medium slate gray, eye black
6/3/2005 chocolate dark solid brown, eye black
6/6/2005 dove a light gray, eye pink
6/7/2005 fawn a dark tan, eye pink
6/8/2005 red a dark orange, eye black
6/9/2005 silver a solid even gray, also called pewter, eye pink or black
6/10/2005 lilac a solid pinkish pale gray, eye black
6/13/2005 white a solid white coat, black eye
6/14/2005 albino a solid white coat, pink eye
6/15/2005 tan a pattern with a solid medium tan on the underside
6/16/2005 dutch a pattern with spots covering cheeks, ears and rump extending to half the tail and hind legs
6/17/2005 even marked a pattern of symmetrical spots of a darker color over the entire body
6/20/2005 broken a pattern of asymmetrical spots of a darker color over the entire body, a spot on one side of the muzzle required
6/21/2005 himalayan a pattern on a white coat of a dark color on the face, ears, legs and tail
6/22/2005 rump white any coat color with a white rump, hind legs and tail
6/23/2005 banded any coat color with a white band around the body, band should be unbroken and an even size all around
6/24/2005 agouti a pattern of color where the base of the hair is brown, the middle is yellow and the tip is black
6/27/2005 satin a coat texture of extreme silkiness and shine
6/28/2005 brindle a coat pattern of stripes, bars or bands in a color different from the coat, no white or patches of color permitted
6/29/2005 longhair a coat type where the hair is longer and appears fluffy, all colors recognized
6/30/2005 curly a coat type where the hair is curled or wavy 

July 2005        "The Clotting Cascade"

Date Word Definition
7/1/2005 hemostasis process to arrest the flow of blood from vessels carrying blood under pressure
7/4/2005 hemorrhage bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel
7/5/2005 hemophilia inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage
7/6/2005 thrombocyte non-nucleated disk-shaped cells found in the blood of all mammals involved in blood coagulation
7/7/2005 Vitamin K a lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting
7/8/2005 anticoagulant agent that prevents blood clotting, natural occuring agents in the blood are only included when used as drugs
7/11/2005 Factor I plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin,composed of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains bound by disulfide bonds
7/12/2005 Factor II a plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin
7/13/2005 Factor III serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation
7/14/2005 Factor IV essential for normal function of nerves, muscles, plays a role in blood coagulation and in enzymatic processes
7/15/2005 Factor VII plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation
7/18/2005 Factor VIII made in the liver, acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, deficiency results in Hemophilia A
7/19/2005 Factor IX  blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway , deficiency results in hemophilia B (Christmas Disease)
7/20/2005 Factor X  glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways
7/21/2005 Factor XI blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway, deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C
7/22/2005 Factor XII blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel
7/25/2005 kallikrein proteolytic enzymes of the serine endopeptidase family found in blood & urine, potent vasodilators, hypotensives
7/26/2005 prothrombin plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin
7/27/2005 thrombin an enzyme formed from prothrombin that converts fibrinogin to fibrin
7/28/2005 fibrinogen plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains
7/29/2005 fibrin a protein derived from fibrinogen in the presence of thrombin, which forms part of the blood clot 

August 2005     "The Building blocks of life"

Date Word Definition
8/1/2005 DNA molecule that encodes genetic information, DNA is double-stranded held together by weak bonds between base pairs
8/2/2005 double helix the spiral shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when they join
8/3/2005 base pairs adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine held together by weak bonds (bonds hold the strands of DNA together)
8/4/2005 base sequence the order of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule
8/5/2005 DNA fingerprint unique pattern of DNA fragments identified by Southern hybridization or PCR
8/8/2005 DNA footprint technique using gel electrophoresis to find out which parts of a DNA molecule have sites for protein attachments
8/9/2005 DNA melting denaturation of a DNA molecule with heat
8/10/2005 DNA sequence the relative order of base pairs, whether in a fragment of DNA, a gene, a chromosome, or an entire genome
8/11/2005 DNase an enzyme which breaks the DNA molecule into smaller pieces (or oligonucleotides)
8/12/2005 DNA synthesizer a machine which automatically makes short, artificial polynucleotides or oligonucleotides
8/15/2005 DNA excision the removal of a damaged segment of a DNA molecule by a group of DNA repair enzymes
8/16/2005 DNA puff an area on a chromosome where transcription of DNA into mRNA, or replication of DNA is occurring
8/17/2005 meiosis process where a single diploid cell becomes four haploid cells
8/19/2005 mitosis process of nuclear division in cells that produces two cells from one cell, which are genetically identical to each other
8/20/2005 interphase the period in the cell cycle when the cell is not undergoing mitosis, it is growing, increasing in size
8/23/2005 prophase the first stage of mitosis, individual chromosomes become visible as they condense to thick structures
8/24/2005 metaphase the stage in mitosis after prophase during which chromosomes are aligned along a single plane in the center of the cell
8/25/2005 anaphase the stage in mitosis following metaphase, paired chromatids separate & move to opposite ends of the cell
8/26/2005 apoptosis programed cell death as signalled by the nuclei in normally functioning human and animal cells
8/27/2005 hyperploidy cell or organism which has more than the normal total number of chromosomes
8/30/2005 hypoploidy cell or organism which has less than the normal total number of chromosomes
8/31/2005 binary fission division of a cell into two daughter cells after DNA replication and nuclear division. A form of asexual reproduction

September 2005    "What class of drugs are they?"

Date Word Definition
9/1/2005 antibiotic a substance that is able to kill or inhibit the growth of certain microorganisms
9/2/2005 NSAID a large group of anti-inflammatory agents that work by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins
9/6/2005 analgesic a drug used to relieve pain
9/7/2005 sedative a medication with tranquilizing properties that can also promote sleep
9/8/2005 tranquilizer a medication with a calming, soothing effect that relieves anxiety
9/9/2005 barbiturate a widely used group of addictive sedative drugs, some with anesthetic properties made from barbituric acid
9/12/2005 opiate an addictive drug containing or derived from opium, some have analgesic/anesthetic properties
9/13/2005 narcotic an addictive drug containing or derived from opium, some have analgesic/anesthetic properties
9/14/2005 anesthetic a drug that causes unconsciousness or a loss of general sensation
9/15/2005 adjuvant a substance when added to a medicine, speeds or improves its action
9/16/2005 antacid a substance that counteracts or neutralizes acidity, usually of the stomach
9/19/2005 decongestant a drug (such as pseudoephedrine) which relieves nasal congestion
9/20/2005 antihistamine a drug that relieves allergy symptoms by blocking production or effects of histamines
9/21/2005 anticonvulsant an agent that prevents or relieves convulsions
9/22/2005 antiseptic a compound that prevents infection or decay by killing a wide range of pathogenic microbes
9/23/2005 antiviral drugs that stimulate cellular defenses against viruses
9/26/2005 antihelmentic an agent that is destructive to worms, used for removing internal parasitic worms
9/27/2005 fungicide an agent or drug that destroys fungi
9/28/2005 antiemetic a medicine that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting
9/29/2005 antitussive a compound that prevents or controls coughs
9/30/2005 placebo a medicinal preparation having no pharmacological activity against the patients illness

 October 2005    "The serology panel tests for...?"

Date Word Definition
10/3/2005 Tyzzer's disease an acute disease of laboratory animals caused by the bacterium Bacillius piliformis
10/4/2005 MHV Mouse Hepatitis Virus, a coronavirus that causes fatal hepatitis in weanlings; otherwise causes inapparent infection
10/5/2005 Ectromelia caused by the poxvirus, is activated by stress. Rare in US usually introduced through imported mice, tumor cell lines
10/6/2005 Reovirus-3 Respiratory Enteric Orphan virus (family Reoviridae) an RNA virus, found in the respiratory and enteric tract
10/7/2005 PVM Pneumonia Virus of Mice, an RNA virus from the  family Paramyxoviridae
10/10/2005 Sendai virus Parainfluenza virus type 1 (Paramyxoviridae), can cause fatal pneumonia in mice & respiratory disease in humans
10/11/2005 TEMV/GDVII Theiler's Mouse Encephalomyelitis Virus, an RNA virus (family Picornaviridae) transmitted by the fecal-oral route
10/12/2005 Polyoma virus a papovavirus (genus Polyomavirus, family Papovaviridae), a DNA tumor virus, transmitted by contaminated tumor cell cultures
10/13/2005 mouse adenovirus a non-enveloped virus infecting mice, infections may be asymptomatic or cause a variety of illnesses
10/14/2005 MCMV Mouse Cytomegalovirus, a DNA virus from the family Herpesviridae, found in wild mice, transmitted by saliva, persistant infections
10/17/2005 EDIM Epizootic Diarrhea of Infant Mice, a rotavirus that causes disease in suckling mice, no treatment, prevent with filter bonnet caging
10/18/2005 Hantaan virus a hantavirus infecting rodents and humans who come in contact with it, causes hemorrhagic fever in humans
10/19/2005 CARB Cilia-Associated Respiratory Bacillus, gram-negative bacteria found between the cilia lining the respiratory tract
10/20/2005 LCMV Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus, an arenavirus, part of the lcm-lassa complex viruses, non-clinical infection in mice but viral
10/21/2005 MPV mouse parvovirus
10/24/2005 MVM Minute Virus of Mice is a DNA virus (Parvovirus), highly contagious, shed in urine & feces, common  tumor cell line contaminant
10/25/2005 MTV Mouse Thymic Virus, considered a herpes virus, causes necrosis of thymus, lymph nodes, and spleen
10/26/2005 H. hep Helicobacter hepaticus, genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that causes chronic active hepatitis
10/27/2005 M. pul Mycoplasma pulmonis is gram-negative bacteria (family Mycoplasmataceae) affects middle ear and respiratory tract
10/28/2005 M. arth Mycoplasma arthritidis is gram-negative bacteria (family Mycoplasmataceae) causes no lesions in subclinical infections
10/31/2005 K virus a small DNA virus (family Papovaviridae), that causes pneumonia in young mice

November 2005     "How do you get this medicine in?"

Date Word Definition
11/1/2005 prescription a written direction for the preparation & administration of a remedy
11/2/2005 solution a liquid preparation of one or more substances dissolved in water
11/3/2005 suspension a preparation of a finely divided drug incorporated throughout the body of a liquid
11/4/2005 instillation administration of a liquid drop by drop, usually onto the surface of an organ or structure
11/7/2005 emulsion a preparation of one liquid distributed a small globules throughout the body of a second liquid
11/8/2005 encapsulation enclosing a substance into a capsule to protect or delay the release of the substance
11/9/2005 compound to combine two or more substances into a homogenous mixture for administration
11/10/2005 atomization  the act of breaking a liquid up into a spray
11/11/2005 nebulization treatment using a spray
11/14/2005 ingestion taking medicine into the body by mouth
11/15/2005 insufflation the act of blowing a powder, vapor,gas or air into a body cavity
11/16/2005 infusion the introduction of a substance other than blood into a vein, flows in by gravity
11/17/2005 injection the introduction of a substance into a vein or tissue, forced in by a syringe
11/18/2005 infiltrate  the introduction of a substance into the spaces between cells of a tissue
11/21/2005 inunction applying an ointment onto the skin with friction
11/22/2005 clyster an injection into the rectum, an enema
11/23/2005 absorption the uptake of substances into or across tissues
11/28/2005 inhalation drawing air or a substance into the lungs for absorbtion into the blood
11/29/2005 aerosolation the dispersing of a substance as a fine mist
11/30/2005 plaster a paste-like mixture that is spread over the skin and has adhesive properties at body temperatures

December 2005       "Some of our favorite words."

Date Word Definition
12/1/2005 mimosa any variety of tropical herbs/shrubs/trees having compound leaves sensitive to touch/light
12/2/2005 epistaxis nose bleed
12/5/2005 syncope temporary loss of consciousness due to cerebral ischemia - a faint
12/6/2005 erudite educated and well read, scholarly
12/7/2005 onomatopoeia the use of words whose meaning suggests it's sense (buzz, clank…)
12/8/2005 emesis vomiting
12/9/2005 ischemia deficiency of blood in a part due to functional constriction or actual obstruction
12/12/2005 anthropomorphisim atributing of human form or character to nonhuman subjects
12/13/2005 sphugmomamometer an instrument for measuring blood pressure in the arteries
12/14/2005 wisps small handfuls, thin strips or fragments
12/15/2005 sphincter a ringlike band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural orifice
12/16/2005 plasminogen the inactive precursor of plasmin to which it is converted by the proteolytic action of urokinase
12/19/2005 flatulence presence of excessive amounts of air/gases in the intestine or stomach leading to distention
12/20/2005 truculent combative, pugnacious, belligerent, cruelly fierce, savage, heinous, ferocious
12/21/2005 serendipity the discovery of important fact or object by accident, which was not the original objective of the quest
12/22/2005 crapulent sick from excessive eating or drinking

January 2006    "My Gandmother calls it..."

Date Word Definition
1/2/2006 felon an abscess involving the pulp of the distal phalanx of the finger
1/3/2006 apoplexy paralysis caused by a blood clot in the brain (stroke)
1/4/2006 bad blood syphilis
1/5/2006 carbuncle cystic acne
1/6/2006 consumption pulmonary tuberculosis
1/9/2006 cramp colic appendicitis
1/10/2006 dropsy congestive heart failure
1/11/2006 grippe influenza
1/12/2006 lockjaw tetanus
1/13/2006 mormal gangrene
1/16/2006 furuncle abscess caused by Staphylococcal bacteria
1/17/2006 quincy tonsillitis
1/18/2006 marasmus malnutrition, usually applied to infants and young children
1/19/2006 lumbago back pain
1/20/2006 costiveness constipation
1/23/2006 coryza common cold
1/24/2006 green fever anemia
1/25/2006 hip gout osteomyelitis
1/26/2006 morphew scurvy sores
1/27/2006 variola smallpox
1/30/2006 calentura sunstroke
1/31/2006 ague malarial fever

February 2006  "There's a fungus among us!"

Date Word Definition
2/1/2006 fungus a general term used to denote a group of eukaryotic protists having no chlorophyll and a rigid cell wall
2/2/2006 fungi the plural of fungus
2/3/2006 yeast a general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding
2/6/2006 mould a filamentous fungus
2/7/2006 chitin a cross linked polymer of N acetyl D glucosamine that is the major structural component of fungal cell walls
2/8/2006 mannans mannose containing polysaccharides found in yeasts a wall constituent
2/9/2006 cellulose a straight chain polysaccharide, a major component of plant cell walls
2/10/2006 hyphae the fine, branching tubes which make up the body of a multicellular fungus
2/13/2006 mycellium mass of hyphae that constitutes the body or vegetative part of a fungus
2/14/2006 fruiting body macroscopic reproductive structure produced that are distinct in size, shape, coloration for each species of fungi
2/15/2006 spore a resistant dehydrated form of reproductive cell produced under conditions of environmental stress
2/16/2006 dermatophyte pathogenic fungus infesting the skin
2/17/2006 ringworm a fungal skin infection characterized by a scaly red ring on the skin accompanied by itching
2/20/2006 DTM DermatophyteTest Medium, a media for growth of aerobic pathogenic dermatophytes that changes color in their presence
2/21/2006 fungus ball a compact mass of fungal mycelium and cellular debris, 1 to 5 cm in diameter, residing within a lung cavity
2/22/2006 fungicide an agent that kills fungi
2/23/2006 fungistatic an agent that inhibits ehr growth of fungi
2/24/2006 fungitoxic poisonous or in any way deleterious to the growth of fungi
2/27/2006 sclerotium the hard, thick-walled, black mass formed by certain fungi (like ergot of rye)
2/28/2006 piedra a fungal disease of the hair where the hair shafts bear white or black hard gritty nodular masses of fungi

March 2006   "Can You Hear Me Now?"

Date Word Definition
3/1/2006 pinna external ear
3/2/2006 meatus external ear opening or canal
3/3/2006 tympanum eardrum,  separates the middle ear from the external ear
3/6/2006 ossicles the three small auditory bones in the middle ear connecting the eardrum to the inner ear
3/7/2006 malleus the outermost of the 3 auditory bones (called the hammer) attached to the eardrum by a long process (a handle-manubrium)
3/8/2006 incus the center ossicle in the ear lying between the malleus and stapes
3/9/2006 stapes  the last ossicle of the middle ear
3/10/2006 eustachian tube a tube connecting the pharynx to the middle ear space for equalizing pressure across the eardrum
3/13/2006 bony labyrinth cochlea, vestibule, & semicircular canals are within the otic capsule of the temporal bone
3/14/2006 cochlea the internal ear part concerned with hearing, it forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, is anterior to the vestibule
3/15/2006 vestibule central area of labyrinth into which 3 semicircular canals and cochlear canal open, involved in sense of balance
3/16/2006 semicircular canals 3 canals of the bony labyrinth, set at right angles to each other
3/17/2006 perilymph the fluid within the bony labyrinth which surrounds the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear
3/20/2006 membraneous labyrinth complex  w/ endolymph suspended within the bony labyrinth; made of cochlear & vestibular labyrinth auditory nerve terminates
3/21/2006 endolymph the watery fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the internal ear
3/22/2006 organ of corti the organ of the membranous labyrinth that contains the special sensory receptors for hearing
3/23/2006 hearing the sensation of sound
3/24/2006 tinnitis a ringing or buzzing in the ears
3/27/2006 audiogram a test of hearing at a variety of sound frequencies
3/28/2006 earache pain in the ear
3/29/2006 otitis media infection and inflammation of the middle ear space and ear drum
3/30/2006 myringotomy the removal of fluid from the middle ear by an incision in the eardrum, ear tubes placed to maintain drainage
3/31/2006 deafness lack or loss of the sense of hearing can be complete or partial

April 2006        "Twitterpation"

Date Word Definition
4/3/2006 gamete a reproductive element, one of 2 cells (sperm) & (ova) whose union is necessary to generate a new individual
4/4/2006 gonad a gamete producing gland; an ovary or testis
4/5/2006 ovary the female gonad where ova are formed, normally occur in pairs
4/6/2006 ovum the female reproductive cell which when fertilized develops into a new member of the same species
4/7/2006 ova plural of ovum
4/10/2006 egg an animal ovum or female reproductive cell that is extruded from the maternal body before development/fertilization
4/11/2006 oocyte the developing egg cell in the ovary
4/12/2006 ovulation the discharge of the ooocyte from the vessicular follicle of the ovary
4/13/2006 gestation the time between conception and birth when the embryo develops
4/14/2006 pregnant condition of having a developing embryo in the body
4/17/2006 gravid pregnant, containing developing young
4/18/2006 pseudocyesis a false pregnancy, where the body mimics changes that occur with pregnancy
4/19/2006 parturition the act of giving birth
4/20/2006 kindle the act of giving birth for rabbits, fox
4/21/2006 whelping the act of giving birth for dogs, wolves, and other canids
4/24/2006 queening the act of giving birth for cats
4/25/2006 altricial birth or hatching in helpless condition, requiring parental care
4/26/2006 precocial young that require little or no parental care after birth or hatching
4/27/2006 wean when young are no longer dependant on the mother for milk

May 2006       "Even the little ones have special names."

Date Word Definition
5/1/2006 lamb a young sheep
5/2/2006 piglet a young swine
5/3/2006 foal a young horse
5/4/2006 chick a young chicken or any young bird
5/5/2006 calf a young cow, hippo, whale, rhino, elephant
5/8/2006 kitten a young cat
5/9/2006 kid a young goat
5/10/2006 puppy a young dog
5/11/2006 pup young of various other canine animals
5/12/2006 bunny a young rabbit
5/15/2006 leveret a young hare
5/16/2006 fry young or small fish and bees
5/17/2006 parr or smoult a young salmon
5/18/2006 tadpole a young frog before metamorphosis
5/19/2006 fawn a young deer
5/22/2006 eaglet a young eagle
5/23/2006 cygnet a young swan
5/24/2006 poult a young turkey
5/25/2006 gosling a young goose
5/26/2006 duckling a young duck
5/29/2006 joey a young kangaroo
5/30/2006 cub a young lion, bear, fox, or shark
5/31/2006 dray a young squirrel

June 2006        "You are what you eat."

Date Word Definition
6/1/2006 appetite natural recurring desire for food
6/2/2006 diet regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal
6/5/2006 soft diet a normal diet limited to soft foods for those who have difficulty chewing or swallowing
6/6/2006 dietary suppliments products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide essential nutrients
6/7/2006 dietary fats fats present in food, especially in animal products
6/8/2006 dietary fiber the remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man
6/9/2006 dietary proteins proteins present in food from plant and animal sources
6/12/2006 dietary carbohydrate carbohydrates present in food:digestible sugars & starches, indigestible cellulose & dietary fibers
6/13/2006 anorexia the uncontrolled lack or loss of the appetite for food
6/14/2006 breatharian a person who attempts to get all their nutritional needs from the air
6/15/2006 vegan a vegetarian who consumes no animal or dairy products of any type
6/16/2006 orthorexia an extreme desire to eat only healthy food
6/19/2006 vegetarian one who holds that vegetables and fruits are the only proper food for man
6/20/2006 pescetarian a person who supplements a vegetarian diet with fish
6/21/2006 flexitarian a person who eats a mostly vegetarian diet, but who is also willing to eat meat or fish occasionally
6/22/2006 rawist a person who eats only unprocessed, unheated, and uncooked food, especially organic fruits, nuts, vegetables, and grains
6/23/2006 carnivore an animal that eats flesh
6/26/2006 herbivore an animal that consumes herbaceous vegetation
6/27/2006 omnivore an animal that eats all kinds of plants and animals
6/28/2006 insectivore mammals which feed principally upon insects
6/29/2006 gastronaut an adventurous eater
6/30/2006 gourmet one who appreciates and is knowledgeable about well-prepared food, fine wines, and the like

 July 2006     "Who is it named after?"

Date Word Definition
7/3/2006 Bang's disease bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus; characterized by abortion late in pregnancy
7/4/2006 Berger's disease a form of glomerulonephritis that results from the deposition of circulating IgA antibody in the kidney tissues
7/5/2006 Andersen's disease familial cirrhosis of the liver with storage of abnormal glycogen
7/6/2006 Head's areas area's of skin exhibiting reflex hyperesthesia and hyperalgesia due to visceral disease
7/7/2006 Hellin's law 1 in 89 pregancies results in twins, 1 in 89x89 results in triplets, 1 in 89x89x89 results in quadruplets
7/10/2006 Battle's sign postauricular (behind the ear) ecchymosis in cases of fracture of the base of the skull
7/11/2006 Allen's test a test for radial or ulnar patency
7/12/2006 Stewart's test estimation of the amount of collateral circulation, in case of an aneurysm of the main artery of a limb
7/13/2006 Western blot a technique similar to Southern blotting, though it is used for proteins
7/14/2006 Vogt's syndrome a type of cerebral palsy manifested predominantly as bilateral involuntary movements
7/17/2006 Phillip's catheter a catheter with a filiform guide for the urethra
7/18/2006 Donohue's syndrome a congenital form of dwarfism characterised by extreme growth retardation, endocrine disorders, and emaciation
7/19/2006 Schroeder's operation excision of diseased endocervical mucosa
7/20/2006 Fletcher's factor a plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein
7/21/2006 Raji cell a cell of a cultured line of lymphoblastoid cells derived from a Burkitt's lymphoma
7/24/2006 Schafer's method an obsolete method of resuscitation in cases of drowning or asphyxia
7/25/2006 Terry's syndrome a bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen
7/26/2006 Budde process a method of milk sterilization
7/27/2006 Peer group group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank
7/28/2006 Saralasin a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II
7/31/2006 Harris' lines dense lines parallel to the growth plates of long bones on radiographs

August 2006   "We all want to win the immunity challenge."

Date Word Definition
8/1/2006 antiserum serum containing immunoglobulins against specific antigens
8/2/2006 immunoglobulins any of the structurally related glycoproteins that function as antibodies
8/3/2006 antibodies protein molecules produced by the B-cells as a primary immune defense
8/4/2006 B-cells a type of white blood cell that produces proteins to fight off infections, the precursors of antibody-forming plasma cells
8/7/2006 T-cells a lymphocyte which undergoes a developmental stage in the thymus
8/8/2006 antigen receptor the specific antigen-binding receptor on T or B lymphocytes
8/9/2006 determinant part of the antigen molecule which binds to an antibody-combining site or to a receptor on T cells
8/10/2006 antigens substances that are capable of producing an immune response
8/11/2006 hapten a compound, usually of low molecular weight, that is not itself immunogenic
8/14/2006 adjuvant a substance added to a vaccine to improve the immune response so that less vaccine is needed to produce a non-specific stimulator
8/15/2006 carrier large immunogenic particle to which an antigenic determinant is attached, allowing the determinant to become immunogenic
8/16/2006 allergen an antigen responsible for producing allergic reactions by inducing IgE formation
8/17/2006 antigenicity the ability of a substance to trigger an immune response in a particular organism
8/18/2006 immunocompetence the body's ability to develop an immune response to infection or disease
8/21/2006 xenoantigen an antigen found in more than one species
8/22/2006 serology a blood test that detects the presence of antibodies to a particular antigen
8/23/2006 complement a series of serum proteins involved in the mediation of immune reactions
8/24/2006 vaccine a substance used to induce the formation of antibodies or immunity against a pathogen
8/25/2006 attenuated to reduce the infectivity of a pathogenic microorganism
8/28/2006 inactivated vaccine vaccine where infectious components have been destroyed without affecting the immunogenicity
8/29/2006 passive immunity resistance to disease an individual achieves thru antibodies from an immune donor
8/30/2006 active immunity resistance to disease an individual achieves thru antibodies produced after infection or vaccination
8/31/2006 biozzi mice any genetic line of mice which has been bred to have unusually high or unusually low antibody responses to various antigens

Sepember 2006   Are you cultured?

Date Word Definition
9/1/2006 culture  to grow in vitro
9/4/2006 continuous culture a culture in liquid medium under constant conditions& nutrient supply so to grow an extended period of time
9/5/2006 cell line a permanently established cell culture that proliferates indefinitely given appropriate fresh medium & space
9/6/2006 cell lineage the lineage of a cell relates to its derivation from the undifferentiated tissues of the embryo
9/7/2006 cell strain cells adapted to culture, but with finite division potential
9/8/2006 Hayflick's limit the limit of human cell division in subcultures; such cells will divide only about 50 times before dying out
9/11/2006 tissue culture  technique of cell culture, using cells dispersed from tissues or distant descendants of such cells
9/12/2006 primary cell culture he cells taken from a tissue source and their progeny grown in culture before subdivision and transfer to a sub culture
9/13/2006 subculture a culture made by transferring to a fresh medium microorganisms from a previous culture
9/14/2006 anchorage dependence  the necessity for attachment (and spreading) in order that a cell will grow and divide in culture
9/15/2006 lag phase the initial growth phase of a culture, during which cell number remains relatively constant prior to rapid growth
9/18/2006 acceleration phase the time when the culture is starting to grow at an increasing rate
9/19/2006 log phase  the phase of vigorous growth during which cell number doubles every 20-30 minutes
9/20/2006 death phase  the final growth phase in a culture, during which nutrients have been depleted and cell number decreases
9/21/2006 clones a group of cells derived from a single ancestor
9/22/2006 colony a group of identical cells (clones) derived from a single parent cell
9/25/2006 pure culture a culture containing a single kind of microorganism or cell
9/26/2006 inoculum cells added to start a culture or, in the case of viruses, viruses added to infect a culture of cells
9/27/2006 cell line rights ownership of a new organism entity, any organism can be patented if it has been manipulated to do something
9/28/2006 frozen stock cells are frozen (in liquid nitrogen) so that experiments are all carried out on cells of comparable passage number
9/29/2006 passage  the number of times a cell line has been subcultured

October 2006   Toxicology is NOT a dirty word!

Date Word Definition
10/2/2006 toxicology the scientific study of the chemistry, effects and treatment of poisonous substances
10/3/2006 neurotoxicology the study of adverse change in structure/chemistry/function of the nervous system after exposure to chemical/biological agent
10/4/2006 pharmacokinetics  the study of the action of a drug in the body over a period of time
10/5/2006 carcinogenicity  the ability or degree of ability of a substance to induce cancer in a test subject
10/6/2006 teratogenicity the ability or degree of a substance to induce physical defects in offspring in utero
10/9/2006 FETAX Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus, a 96 hr non-mammalian developmental toxicity screening test
10/10/2006 toxicity any adverse effects of a chemical on a living organism, the capacity to cause injury
10/11/2006 toxigenicity the degree to which an organism is able to poison/cause illness in another organism
10/12/2006 toxin general term for any poisonous substance
10/13/2006 toxoid a toxin modified so that it is no longer poisonous but is still able to induce antibody formation
10/16/2006 antitoxin a passive immunizing agent to neutralize a specific bacterial toxin
10/17/2006 acute toxicity test establishes the concentration required to kill a set proportion of test organisms within a short time
10/18/2006 chronic toxicity test reveals the effects of a sublethal concentration applied throughout all or part of the life cycle
10/19/2006 lethal dose amount, or dosage, of a toxin necessary to cause death
10/20/2006 LD-50 amount, or dosage, of a toxin necessary to kill 50% of the experimental subjects
10/23/2006 LC-50 concentration of a substance to cause the death of 50% of the experimental subjects
10/24/2006 ADME/PK absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion/pharmacokinetics -addresses how/how much/how fast a chemical got to the site of action
10/25/2006 FDP Fixed Dose Procedure clear toxic signs are observed at fixed dose levels, death is not the endpoint
10/26/2006 antagonistic effect a biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that is less than expected effects of the individual substances added together
10/27/2006 additive effect a biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that equals the sum of responses of all the individual substances added together
10/30/2006 absorption the process of taking in, the process of a substance getting into the body through eyes, skin, lungs, intestine, and stomach
10/31/2006 antidote a substance for counteracting a poison

November 2006    Contranyms aka Antagonyms or Autoantonyms - one word with two opposite meanings

Date Word Definition
11/1/2006 bound in the construction bound for, it means moving towards someplace as in "we were bound for glory', as an adjective alone, it means tied up, secure, unable to move as in "we were bound hand and foot"
11/2/2006 cleave verb meaning to seal together as in "you will become man and wife and cleave only to each other", verb meaning to cut apart as in "Moses used his staff to cleave the rock in half"
11/3/2006 buckle verb of the noun buckle, it means to secure, tighten, hold as in "buckle up, the elephant is moving", verb it means to weaken, collapse as in "the bridge began to buckle as the elephant crossed"
11/6/2006 citation a noun meaning an award for doing good as in "she received the Good Citizen citation for volunteering", a noun meaning a penalty for doing wrong as in "he had 20 speeding citations"
11/7/2006 clip the verb meaning attach together as in "clip these papers and give them to the boss", the verb meaning cut off as in "please clip the hair in your nose"
11/8/2006 custom as a noun, it means usual, conventional as in "our custom is to serve cake on birthdays", as an adjective, it means unique as in "the custom bike was a perfect birthday gift"
11/9/2006 dust the verb meaning to remove dust as in "I must dust the furniture before guests arrive", the verb meaning to apply dust as in "the police began to dust for fingerprints"
11/10/2006 fast as an adverb, it means to move or do quickly as in "the mouse was so fast we couldn't catch it", as an adjective it means to not move as in "he stood fast in fear of the mouse"
11/13/2006 left as a past tense verb, it means to have gone as in "he left immediately after dinner, as an adjective; it means remaining as in "all he left on his plate were the bones"
11/14/2006 scan a verb meaning to examine closely as in "scan the horizon for any signs of tornadoes", a verb meaning to glance at hastily as in "I'll scan the front page and read the rest after work"
11/15/2006 bolt a verb meaning to leave quickly as in "the arrival of her father caused the young man to bolt for the door", a verb meaning to be fixed in place as in "bolt the door so my father can't come in"
11/16/2006 oversight noun of oversee meaning watchful control as in "the oversight committee allowed the experiment", noun form of overlook meaning something not noticed as in "the oversight lead to an OSHA fine"
11/17/2006 handicap noun meaning an advantage in sports as in "the handicap of the bowler made him a formidable opponent", noun meaning a disadvantage as in "her only handicap in getting a date was her thick glasses"
11/20/2006 bill monetary notes, indicating money possessed as in "he had a $100 bill in his wallet", refers to statements of debt, indicating money owed as in "the casino hotel presented him with a bill"
11/21/2006 model an archtype, example as in "the car show model was so futuristic as to be impractical", a replica, copy as in "the model of the courthouse was complete even to the pidgeons on the roof"
11/22/2006 puzzle a verb meaning to pose a problem as in "the puzzle of the origin of the universe has not been solved", a verb meaning to solve a problem as in "I won't do your math for you, you'll have to puzzle it out yourself"
11/27/2006 seed a verb meaning to remove seeds as in "please seed the watermelon before adding it to the salad", a verb meaning to add seeds as in "before you seed the lawn, you must remove the rocks"
11/28/2006 screen a verb meaning to shield/conceal as in "she tried to screen the children from the intruders", a verb meaning to show/view as in " we will screen the new movie next weekend"
11/29/2006 temper a verb meaning to soften/mollify as in "he tempered the punishment by promising a trip to the zoo", a verb meaning to strengthen as in "to temper the sword, the blade was heated"
11/30/2006 quantum an adjective meaning very small as in "quantum physics examines particles so small we can't see them", an adjective meaning very large as in "a quantum leap in peace occurred when she decided to forgive"

December 2006  Staying Alive!

Date Word Definition
12/1/2006 agar a gelatinous extract from red algae most frequently used as a culture medium, especially for bacteria
12/4/2006 blood agar an agar-based medium enriched with sterile, defibinated blood used for primary plating and subculturing
12/5/2006 broth a liquid medium containing a variety of nutrients which is used to grow cultures
12/6/2006 basal medium unsupplemented medium that promotes growth of many types of microorganisms
12/7/2006 complex medium a medium whose precise chemical composition is unknown
12/8/2006 defined medium cell culture medium in which all components are known
12/11/2006 enriched medium a growth medium which contains extra unusual nutrients or contains higher concentrations of regular nutrients
12/12/2006 growth medium a synthetic medium which is filled with nutrients necessary to the growth of microorganisms or cells being cultured in the lab
12/13/2006 minimal medium the simplest tissue culture medium that will support the proliferation of normal cells
12/14/2006 complete medium growth medium that supplies all the nutrients/organic compounds necessary for growth leaving nothing for the cell to synthesize
12/15/2006 selective medium a medium which allows the growth of certain types of microorganisms in preference to others
12/18/2006 culture media any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells
12/19/2006 gelatin heat denatured collagen protein used in culture medium
12/20/2006 auxostat a system for a continuous culture in which a component of the system is set and the other parameters are adjusted
12/21/2006 enrichment culture use of selective culture media and incubation conditions to isolate microorganisms directly from nature
12/22/2006 fetal calf serum serum originating from embryonic calves providing growth hormones and other growth factors to culture media

January 2007    "I'm Protected"

Date Word Definition
1/2/2007 PPE Personal Protective Equipment
1/3/2007 OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforces minimum health & safety standards
1/4/2007 biohazards hazard to humans or the environment resulting from biological agents
1/5/2007 chemical hazards hazard to humans or the environment resulting from chemical agents
1/8/2007 particulate mask mask used for filtration of tiny suspended solid or liquid particles in the air made of dense, fiber mesh
1/9/2007 respirator mask protective mask with a filter; protects the face and lungs against poisonous gases
1/10/2007 face shield made of transparent or tinted plastic and designed to protect the face or eyes from splash or debris
1/11/2007 goggles a type of spectacle with auxiliary shields for protecting the eyes from splashes
1/12/2007 safety glasses eye protection against flying debris or against visible and near visible light or radiation
1/15/2007 nitrile a form of synthetic rubber copolymer acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene, is resistant to oil, fuel, and other chemicals
1/16/2007 neoprene a synthetic rubber resistant to oils and aging used in waterproofing
1/17/2007 latex a natural rubber made from a milky white liquid sap produced by some plants such as the rubber tree
1/18/2007 vinyl a plastic made from a vinyl polymer, generally flexible and tough
1/19/2007 radiation hazards having harmful or injurious effects to humans and wildlife resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation
1/22/2007 thermal hazards hazards to humans or the environment resulting from exposure to objects at temperature extremes
1/23/2007 sharps hazards  hazards to humans or the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated needles, stylets, glass etc
1/24/2007 auditory hazards hazards to humans or the environment resulting from noise levels and exposure time
1/25/2007 earplugs protective device that is meant to be inserted in the ear canal to protect the wearer's hearing from loud noises
1/26/2007 acoustic earmuffs cups lined with sound-deadening material which are worn as hearing protection similar in appearance to headphones
1/29/2007 ergonomic hazards hazard to humans resulting from  the relationship between workers and their environments
1/30/2007 MSDS Material Safety & Data Sheet
1/31/2007 OHP Occupational Health Program

February 2007   "Our Profession's Words"

Date Word Definition
2/1/2007 ALAT Assistant Laboratory Technician, the first level of certification
2/2/2007 LAT Laboratory Animal Technician, the second level of certification
2/5/2007 LATG Laboratory Animal Technologist, the third level of certification
2/6/2007 CMAR Certified Manager of Animal Resources, a specialized level of certification
2/7/2007 DVM Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
2/8/2007 RVT Registered Veterinary Technician
2/9/2007 PI Principal Investigator, the person leading and responsible for the research project
2/12/2007 Ph.D Doctorate of Philosophy
2/13/2007 AALAS American Association of Laboratory Animal Science
2/14/2007 AAALAC Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International
2/15/2007 USDA United States Department of Agriculture
2/16/2007 APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, a branch of U. S. Department of Agriculture
2/19/2007 NIH National Institutes of Health, largest funding agency for research
2/20/2007 OLAW Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, part of NIH
2/21/2007 NABR National Association for Biomedical Research
2/22/2007 AWA Animal Welfare Act
2/23/2007 GLP Good Laboratory Practices
2/26/2007 FDA Food and Drug Administration
2/27/2007 DEA Drug Enforcement Agency
2/28/2007 AVMA American Veterinary Medical Association 

March 2007    "Cagewash Vocabulary or How to Talk Dirty"

Date Word Definition
3/1/2007 sanitation establishment of conditions favorable to health
3/2/2007 disinfection  to free from pathogenic organisms or to render them inert
3/5/2007 sterilization the process of destroying all microorganisms and their pathogenic products
3/6/2007 bacteriocidal capable of killing bacteria
3/7/2007 bacteriostatic arresting the growth or multiplication of bacteria
3/8/2007 autoclave a machine for sterilizing materials with steam under pressure
3/9/2007 rack washer a large machine that accommodates animal housing racks for disinfection
3/12/2007 bottle washer a smaller machine that accommodates bottles and smaller materials for disinfection
3/13/2007 tunnel washer a machine that disinfects using a conveyor to move materials though stages of disinfection
3/14/2007 dump station a unit to contain debris generated by removing soiled bedding from cages
3/15/2007 universal rack a rack that can hold a variety of animal caging and maximizes loads in the washer
3/16/2007 trap a basket, filter, mesh or U-pipe that prevents small debris from entering a system or gases from escaping
3/19/2007 zerk a grease fitting, found on casters
3/20/2007 coil a hose to deliver liquid or gas that is spring like to keep it out of the way
3/21/2007 emergency cable a metal cable located inside the washer to allow for exit if trapped inside the machine
3/22/2007 flat a plastic tray used to hold small items during the washing cycle
3/23/2007 temp tape an indicator placed on equipment washed to indicate proper temperature for disinfection is met
3/26/2007 acid wash a machine cycle where an acid is added to remove urine scale
3/27/2007 alkaline wash a machine cycle where alkaline detergent is used to disinfect plastic cages
3/28/2007 temp guarantee a setting on the machine that will not allow the cycle to continue until the temperature for disinfection is met
3/29/2007 live steam steam coming directly from a boiler under full pressure
3/30/2007 spraydown an area designed for spraying of liquids, usually a grated floor with a drain

April  2007    "A" Good Word to Know

Date Word Definition
4/2/2007 atelectasis incomplete expansion of the lungs due to obstruction or collapse
4/3/2007 atocia infertility in the female
4/4/2007 asthma recurrent dyspnea with wheezing due to bronchial spasm
4/5/2007 ampule a small glass container sealed to preserve the contents in a sterile condition
4/6/2007 alopecia baldness, absence of hair where it normally is present
4/9/2007 anesthesia loss of sensation or feeling, especially pain
4/10/2007 anemia reduction below normal of the number of RBCs, amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of RBCs
4/11/2007 allergen a substance capable of inducing allergy
4/12/2007 adipose fat, of a fatty nature
4/13/2007 alimentary pertaining to the organs of digestion
4/16/2007 anus the terminal orifice of the alimentary canal
4/17/2007 abrasion the wearing away of tissue by abnormal mechanical means
4/18/2007 abdomen the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
4/19/2007 angio- a prefix denoting relationship to a vessel, usually a blood vessel
4/20/2007 analeptic a drug that acts as a restorative - caffeine for example
4/23/2007 aqueous watery, prepared with water
4/24/2007 ascites effusion and accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
4/25/2007 anaphylaxis an exaggerated/unusual allergic response to a foreign protein or substance
4/26/2007 adipsia absence of thirst or the unusual avoidance of drinking
4/27/2007 albino an individual with congenital absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes
4/30/2007 anisocytosis RBCs in the blood showing excessive variation in size 

May  2007    "A Place to Live"

Date Word Definition
5/1/2007 contact bedding absorbant material in caging intended to come into contact with the animal
5/2/2007 non-contact bedding bedding absorbant material not intended to come into contact with the animal
5/3/2007 wood chip bedding  a bedding made of hard wood chips (flakes of wood produced when chopping wood)
5/4/2007 wood shavings bedding a bedding made of hard wood shavings (thin slices of wood with the grain produced by planing)
5/7/2007 sawdust bedding a bedding made of sawdust (tiny particles of wood)
5/8/2007 corncob bedding a bedbing made of ground corn cobs, contains small amounts of corn & comes in varying sizes
5/9/2007 cellulose bedding a bedding made of compressed fiber components of plant cell walls, used for paper production
5/10/2007 polycarbonate cage a cage made of a clear synthetic resin molded to shape, able to withstand high temp, has high impact strength
5/11/2007 polystyrene cage a cage made of a clear synthetic resin molded to shape, will warp/melt at high temp, has moderate impact strength
5/14/2007 polypropylene cage a cage made of an opaque synthetic resin molded to shape, can withstand high temp, has high impact strength
5/15/2007 stainless steel cage a cage made with polished stainless steel that is resistant to corrosion
5/16/2007 galvinized steel cage a cage where the steel has been coated with zinc that bonds with the steel to prevent rusting
5/17/2007 shoebox cage a solid bottomed cage with a tight fitting lid holding the food and water bottle
5/18/2007 suspended cage a cage with a metal wire/slatted bottom to allow animal waste to fall through into collection pans
5/21/2007 ventilated cage a cage with a special built-in port for air and water on a ventilated rack, requires a bonnet for proper function
5/22/2007 metabolic cage a cage designed to measure food/wate intake and urine/feces output of an animal
5/23/2007 microisolation cage a shoebox cage with an airtight filtered top to either contain or exclude airborne contaminants
5/24/2007 gang cage cages that house multiple animals of the same species, usually for NHP, dogs, cats
5/25/2007 transport cage a cage designed to move an animal from one location to another within a facility or between housing racks
5/28/2007 run a large enclosure with a water-proof floor that is sloped to aid drainage, if outdoors includes shelter
5/29/2007 ventilated rack a rack for multiple cages providing individual water and air supply to each cage
5/30/2007 automatic watering rack a rack for multiple cages providing individual water supply to each cage
5/31/2007 shelf rack a rack to hold multiple cages there is no water or air supply provided as part of the rack

June 2007  "Surgical Lingo"

Date Word Definition
6/1/2007 biopsy a procedure that involves obtaining a tissue specimen for microscopic analysis to establish a precise diagnosis
6/4/2007 implantation insertion or grafting into the body using biological, living, inert or radioactive material
6/5/2007 debridement removal of necrotic, infected or foreign material from a wound
6/6/2007 debulking surgical removal of as much of a tumor as possible, although the surgeon is unable to remove the whole thing
6/7/2007 intussusception the telescoping of one portion of the intestine into another
6/8/2007 excision to surgically remove
6/11/2007 incision to cut into as with a surgical knife
6/12/2007 hemostasis the arrest of bleeding, either by the physiological properties of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical means
6/13/2007 preoperative the period directly preceding an operation
6/14/2007 perioperative pertaining to the period extending from the start of preparation for surgery to the time of complete recovery from surgery
6/15/2007 postoperative the period occurring after a surgical operation
6/18/2007 intraoperative the period occurring during a surgical operation
6/19/2007 ligature a thread or string for tying the blood vessels, particularly the arteries, to prevent hemorrhage
6/20/2007 surgical resection a term used to describe the surgical removal of tissue
6/21/2007 suture usually a synthetic based line that is minimally reactive in biological tissue used to close wounds
6/22/2007 absorbable suture suture that will dissolve over time
6/25/2007 non-absorbable suture suture that will not dissolve over time
6/26/2007 dehiscence a  bursting open or splitting along surgical suture lines, a surgical complication secondary to poor wound healing
6/27/2007 scalpel a small knife with a thin, razor-like blade, used by surgeons, and in dissecting
6/28/2007 coagulation the disruption of tissue by physical means to form an amorphous residuum, i.e. electrocoagulation and photocoagulation
6/29/2007 anastomosis an opening created by surgical, traumatic or pathological means between two normally separate spaces or organs

July 2007    "Words Found on Animal Protocols"

Date Word Definition
7/2/2007 approved the designation the IACUC give a protocol that meets the standards for acceptable research
7/3/2007 defer the designation the IACUC give a protocol that lacks information needed to meet the standards for research
7/5/2007 not approved the designation the IACUC give a protocol that does not meet the standards for acceptable research
7/6/2007 radioisotope a molecule having an unstable nucleus and emitting characteristic radiation during its decay to a stable form
7/9/2007 debilitation serious weakening and loss of energy
7/10/2007 controlled substance a drug/chemical whose purchase, use & distribution is controlled by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA)
7/11/2007 anesthetic a drug or agent that is used to abolish the sensation of pain, general anesthesia causes unconsciousness
7/12/2007 analgesic a drug that relieves pain without loss of consciousness
7/13/2007 euthanasia humane methods of killing animals where pain and distress are minimized
7/16/2007 decapitation euthanasia where the head is removed from the body at the 1st vertebra usually under anesthesia unless scientifically justified
7/17/2007 pneumothorax opening the chest cavity on both sides making it imposible for the animal to draw a breath - used to ensure euthanasia
7/18/2007 perfusion the infusing of a liquid usually saline followed by preservative to remove blood from body tissues and to fix tissues for processing
7/19/2007 justification reasons based on scientific data or experience to allow or disallow a procedure or experiment
7/20/2007 rationale the logical basis of a procedure
7/23/2007 endpoint the point at which the experiment for an animal or a group of animals is terminated
7/24/2007 assurance a legal declaration that all rules, regulations and laws related to animal research have been instituted and followed
7/25/2007 confidential information which is considered private and implies an ethical or legal principle forbidding release to the public
7/26/2007 pain classifiaction B animals bred, held, conditioned for use in teaching/experiments/research but not yet being used
7/27/2007 pain classification C animals upon which teaching/research will be conducted involving NO pain, distress or pain relieving drugs
7/30/2007 pain classification D animals upon which teaching/research will be conducted involving pain or distress with use of pain relieving drugs
7/31/2007 pain classification E animals upon which teaching/research will be conducted involving pain or distress without use of pain relieving drugs 

August 2007  "De"lightful Words

Date Word Definition
8/1/2007 debilitating characteristic of a morbid process that causes weakness
8/2/2007 debris the remains such as results from the destruction of anything
8/3/2007 decapitate to euthanize by cutting off the head of an animal in preparation for certain physiologic experiments
8/6/2007 decompression a surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part
8/7/2007 decubitus an act of lying down, also the position assumed in lying down
8/8/2007 defecation to expell feces from the rectum
8/9/2007 dendritic cells found in germinal center of spleen & lymph nodes, retains antigen for long time, associated with stimulating T-cell proliferation
8/10/2007 defibrillation arresting fibrillation (involuntary rapid contraction of heart muscle) by applying electric shock across the chest
8/13/2007 defibrination removal of fibrin from blood by constant agitation while the blood is collected in a container with glass beads or chips
8/14/2007 dehydration the condition that results from excessive loss of body water
8/15/2007 deoderant agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable odors
8/16/2007 deontology the science related to duty or moral obligation
8/17/2007 depopulate humane destruction of all animals on a premises during a disease eradication program
8/20/2007 depilatory a topical agent (chemical) that causes the falling out or removal of hair
8/21/2007 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that encodes genetic information in the nucleus of cells
8/22/2007 desquamation the shedding of epithelial elements, chiefly of the skin
8/23/2007 deviation variation from the common way, from an established rule
8/24/2007 decongestant a sympathomimetic drug that constricts blood vessels in the nasal passages and reduce congestion or swelling
8/27/2007 deciduous teeth the first set of teeth of mammals, also called milk teeth or baby teeth that are replaced as the animal matures
8/28/2007 detergent cleansing agents that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects
8/29/2007 desensitization the reduction or abolition of allergic sensitivity or reactions to the specific antigen
8/30/2007 devitalized refers to tissue that has died due to trauma or lack of blood supply
8/31/2007 degloving  avulsion of the skin of an extremity where the bone is exposed by removal of skin and subcutaneous tissue

September 2007     "Words for Traveling"

Date Word Definition
9/4/2007 safari an overland journey by hunters
9/5/2007 voyage passing by sea or water from one place, port, or country, to another
9/6/2007 wander move about aimlessly or without any destination, go via an indirect route or at no set pace
9/7/2007 explore travel to or penetrate into an unfamiliar area
9/10/2007 flight a scheduled trip by plane between designated airports
9/11/2007 cruise an ocean trip taken for pleasure
9/12/2007 expedition an organized group of people undertaking a journey for a particular purpose
9/13/2007 quest  the act of searching for something
9/14/2007 crusade any of the more or less continuous military expeditions in the 11-13th centuries
9/17/2007 trek a journey by ox wagon,  any long and difficult trip
9/18/2007 commute travel back and forth regularly
9/19/2007 drive the overland journey in an automobile
9/20/2007 migrate move from one country or region to another and settle there or move periodically or seasonally
9/21/2007 crawl a slow creeping mode of locomotion (on hands and knees or dragging the body)
9/24/2007 walk the act of traveling by foot
9/25/2007 run a regular trip, a short trip, move fast by using one's feet, with one foot off the ground at any given time
9/26/2007 lope a slow pace of running, a smooth 3-beat gait
9/27/2007 trudge a long difficult walk
9/28/2007 soar fly upwards or high in the sky 

October 2007  Pirate Words or Words that start with "AR"

Date Word Definition
10/1/2007 arachnophobia morbid fear of spiders
10/2/2007 arboreal attached to, found in or upon, or frequenting, woods or trees; as, arboreal animals
10/3/2007 arachnoid covered with or consisting of soft fibres or hairs so entangled as to give a cobwebby appearance
10/4/2007 arborvirus from arthropod + borne. Viruses transmitted to humans by mosquitoes and ticks
10/5/2007 arbovirus a virus which uses Arthropods as vectors and is transmitted in their saliva to the definitive host
10/8/2007 archaic ancient or old
10/9/2007 arginine an essential amino acid, a major component of proteins
10/10/2007 areometer an instrument for measuring the specific gravity of fluids
10/11/2007 argon an element, contained in the atmosphere and remarkable for its chemical inertness
10/12/2007 aristology the study of dining
10/15/2007 Aristotle a Greek who established a link between biology and medicine, adept in logic, botany, zoology and anatomy
10/16/2007 aromatherapy use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behaviour
10/17/2007 arrythmia any variation from the normal rhythm of the heart beat
10/18/2007 arrhinia congenital absence of the nose
10/19/2007 arrest stoppage, the act of stopping
10/22/2007 artifact something artificial, a distortion that does not reflect normal anatomy or pathology, not usually found in the body
10/23/2007 artery a blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
10/24/2007 arthritis an inflammatory condition that affects joints
10/25/2007 articular of or pertaining to a joint
10/26/2007 articulated jointed, or having joints where separation may occur naturally
10/29/2007 arvicole a mouse of the genus Arvicola; the meadow mouse
10/30/2007 arse the buttocks, or hind part of an animal
10/31/2007 arcade an anatomical structure or structures (especially a blood vessel) taking the form of a series of arches

November 2007   "Words for Everyday Use"

Date Word Definition
11/1/2007 gestation the duration of development from fertilization to birth in viviparous animals
11/2/2007 DOB Date Of Birth - date animals are born
11/5/2007 dam the female parent of an animal
11/6/2007 segregate to separate a female from a male or remove a sick/injured animal from a colony/group
11/7/2007 DOW Date Of Weaning - date young are removed from the dam
11/8/2007 sire the male parent of an animal
11/9/2007 DOR Date Of Reciept - date aminals are received from outside sources or placed on experimantal protocol
11/12/2007 quarantine a place to isolate animals suspected of contagion, a period to hold animals apart to observe for health
11/13/2007 sentinel an animal placed with another group for monitoring of health status
11/14/2007 infection invasion and multiplication of microorganisms/parasites in body tissues or organs
11/15/2007 enrichment addition of objects/food/substrate/conspecifics to an animal's enclosure for psychological/physical stimulation
11/16/2007 conspecific a member of the same species - considered the best type of enrichment
11/19/2007 backcross the mating of a heterozygote to a homozygote of the same strain as one of the original parents
11/20/2007 background the strain in which a genetic alteration is maintained after 8 generations of backcrossing
11/21/2007 genotype the entire genetic makeup of an individual or the alleles present at one or more loci
11/26/2007 anorexia  the lack or loss of the appetite for food
11/27/2007 harvest to remove tissue or organs from an animal either as a survival or non-survival procedure
11/28/2007 transfer to move something from one place or animal to another place or animal
11/29/2007 dilution to difuse a quantity of agent into a quantity of liquid reducing the concentration of the orignial agent
11/30/2007 RO water Reverse Osmosis - the forcing of water contaminated with salt/organic compounds/impurities through a membrane to produce pure water

December 2007  "O.K. Words"

Date Word Definition
12/3/2007 otitis inflammation of the ear
12/4/2007 K chemical symbol for potassium
12/5/2007 osteoma a tumor composed of bone tissue
12/6/2007 ketamine a non-barbiturate general anesthetic schedule III, has poor analgesic properties
12/7/2007 ophthalmic pertaining to the eye
12/10/2007 keratitis inflammation of the cornea
12/11/2007 objective the lens or system of lenses in a microscope that is nearest the object under examination
12/12/2007 kilogram a metric unit equal to 1000 grams or 2.2 pounds
12/13/2007 occiput the back part of the head
12/14/2007 kinship a group of individuals or varying degrees of relatedness descended from a common ancestor
12/17/2007 ocular of, pertaining to or affecting the eye
12/18/2007 kinetic pertaining to or producing motion
12/19/2007 olfaction the act of smelling, the sense of smell
12/20/2007 keratin an insoluble protein found in the epidermis, hair, and nails
12/21/2007 oncology the study of tumors

January 2008   "Firsts"

Date Word Definition
1/2/2008 primagravid pregnant for the first time
1/3/2008 primapara a female having had one pregnancy that resulted in viable offspring
1/4/2008 primordium the first beginings of an organ or part in a embryo
1/7/2008 prodrome the first symptom indicating the onset of a disease
1/8/2008 protoneuron the first neuron in a peripheral reflex arc
1/9/2008 prototype the first type or form from which later types are modeled
1/10/2008 precursor  the first in order or in time of development
1/11/2008 primary the first in order or in time of development
1/14/2008 eldest the offspring who came first in the order of birth
1/15/2008 prebiotic the period before the existance of life on earth
1/16/2008 primates the highest order of mammals including man, apes, monkeys, and lemurs
1/17/2008 protopathic self-origniating or primary disease
1/18/2008 precancerous pertaining to a pathologic process that tends to become malignant
1/21/2008 onset the beginning of signs or symptoms of illness
1/22/2008 presymptomatic existing before the appearance of symptoms
1/23/2008 foremost preceding all others in spatial position
1/24/2008 initiatory constituting a beginning
1/25/2008 principal highest in rank, character, importance, or degree
1/28/2008 protista the primitive organisms from which animals & plants arose
1/29/2008 primordial of the simplest and most undeveloped character
1/30/2008 primative of the earliest origin
1/31/2008 prophase the first stage in cell division (mitosis or meiosis)

February 2008   "I LOVE These Words"

Date Word Definition
2/1/2008 mate one of a pair associated for propagation and the care of their young
2/4/2008 male the sex that produces spermatozoa, by which the ova are fertilized
2/5/2008 testosterone the male sex hormone
2/6/2008 female the sex which conceives and brings forth young, or which has an ovary and produces ova
2/7/2008 estrogen the female sex hormone
2/8/2008 estrus the recurrent, restricted period of sexual receptivity in female mammals
2/11/2008 aphrodisiac any drug that arouses the sexual instinct
2/12/2008 pheromone a scent secreted by an individual to communicate to others of the same species (sexual attractant)
2/13/2008 narcissism self-love
2/14/2008 libido sexual desire
2/15/2008 nymphomania exaggerated sexual desire in the female
2/18/2008 satyriasis excessive sexual desire in the male
2/19/2008 lordosis the abnormally increased curvature of the spine as a sign of sexual receptiveness in felines
2/20/2008 osculate kiss
2/21/2008 osculation the act of kissing
2/22/2008 fecundity a measure of fertility
2/25/2008 conjugal pertaining to marriage (con-with + jugum-a yoke) 
2/26/2008 nude lacking a covering (ie. hair)
2/27/2008 gravid heavy with young; pregnant
2/28/2008 foster to place orphaned or abandoned young with a nursing female of the same species
2/29/2008 litter siblings born at the same time as the result of fertilization of multiple ova by a single male

March 2008   "Windy Words"

Date Word Definition
3/3/2008 aeroplankton living particles drifting in the air (spores, pollen, bacteria, etc.)
3/4/2008 aerobiology the study of airborne organisms and their distribution
3/5/2008 konometer an apparatus for counting the number of dust particles in the air
3/6/2008 aeolian airborne
3/7/3008 aerometer an instrument for measuring the density of air (weighing air)
3/10/2008 aeromorphosis modification of form or structure owing to the exposure to wind
3/11/2008 windburn chapping of the skin due to excessive exposure to the wind
3/12/2008 windchill loss of heat from the body when exposed to the wind
3/13/2008 windpipe a common name for the trachea
3/14/2008 anemometer an instrument for measuring wind speed
3/17/2008 aerodynamics the science of air and gases in motion
3/18/2008 flatus often noisy expulsion of gas from the intestines
3/19/2008 atelectasis  incomplete expansion of lungs at birth, collapse of the adult lung
3/20/2008 aerophobia morbid fear of drafts of air, airborne influences or bad air (that is body odor or flatus)
3/21/2008 aerosis the production of gas in the tissues or organs of the body
3/24/2008 aerogenesis gas production
3/25/2008 tympany a flatulent distention of the belly
3/26/2008 ancraophobia fear of the wind
3/27/2008 aeroatelectasis a partial, reversible, airless state of lung tissue occurs in pilots at high G forces in 100% oxygen with an anti-G suit
3/28/2008 aerogastria distention of the stomach with gas
3/31/2008 aerodermectatasia the presence of air in the subcutaneous tissue, may be seen in cases of pneumothorax

April 2008   Hair can be "trich"y

Date Word Definition
4/1/2008 trichatrophia atrophy of the hair bulbs, with brittleness, splitting, and falling out of hair
4/2/2008 alopecia baldness, absence of the hair from skin areas where it normally is present
4/3/2008 trichitis inflammation of the hair bulbs
4/4/2008 barbering a dominant rodent grooms cage mates to the point of baldness, primarily on head, neck and shoulders
4/7/2008 trichalgia pain produced by touching the hair
4/8/2008 trichiasis condition where the eyelashes, being turned in upon the eyeball, produce constant irritation by the motion of the lids
4/9/2008 achromotrichia absence or loss of pigment in the hair
4/10/2008 trichogen an agent that promotes the growth of hair
4/11/2008 horripilation rection of the fine hairs of the skin
4/14/2008 cymotrichous curly-headed, having wavy hair
4/15/2008 trichobezoar a hair cast (ball) in the stomach or intestinal tract, common in cats, rabbits, goats
4/16/2008 trichoesthesia the sensation felt when a hair is touched,  paresthesia in which there is a sensation as of a hair on the skin
4/17/2008 hirsutism abnormal hairiness, especially an adult male pattern of hair distribution in women
4/18/2008 supercilia eyebrow hairs
4/21/2008 trichoid hairlike
4/22/2008 trichochrome yellow-orange& violet pigments related to melanins; partly responsible for red & auburn hair color of humans
4/23/2008 trichologia a nervous habit of plucking at the hair
4/24/2008 trichocryptosis any disease of the hair follicles
4/25/2008 plica a disease of the hair (Plica polonica), in which it becomes twisted and matted together
4/28/2008 trichomegaly congenital condition characterised by abnormally long eyelashes
4/29/2008 trichodystrophy defective nutrition of hair, often culminating in alopecia
4/30/2008 trichophagia the eating of hair or wool

May 2008   "Watch out for that hole"

Date Word Definition
5/1/2008 mouth the opening by which animals take in nutrition
5/2/2008 orifice any opening, for example - the mouth is an orifice
5/5/2008 aperture the opening in an optical system
5/6/2008 pore small orifices in animal skin or vegetable membranes, for transpiration, absorption, etc.
5/7/2008 fenestrate having openings or small translucent areas
5/8/2008 perforation a hole made through a part or substance
5/9/2008 pierce to go through a part or substance usually with a slender pointed instrument
5/12/2008 perforator an instrument for piercing the bones
5/13/2008 boring the act of making a hole using a drill, the hole made by a drill
5/14/2008 trephine a hand held saw that creates a circular cut in bone
5/15/2008 interstice a small interval, space or gap in a tissue or structure
5/16/2008 ostomy an operation to create an opening from an area inside the body to the outside
5/19/2008 infundibulum a funnel shaped passage
5/20/2008 anastamosis an opening between two nornally distinct spaces or organs
5/21/2008 rupture a space between the parts of a solid body torn open by violence
5/22/2008 cavity a hollow space within the body or in one of its organs, it may be normal or pathological
5/23/2008 caries another name for cavities due to tooth decay
5/26/2008 excavation a natural cavity, pouch, or recess
5/27/2008 eyelet an orthodontic attachment for better rotational control
5/28/2008 ulcer a defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue produced by sloughing of  tissue
5/29/2008 sinus a notch, depression or cavity on the surface of an organ
5/30/2008 penetrance the extent to which an object enters into a substance or organ

June 2008   "Give me a sign"

Date Word Definition
6/2/2008 physical sign a sign that is observed or elicited by auscultation, percussion, or palpation
6/3/2008 borborygmi rumbling, gurgling noises heard on auscultation of the abdomen in conditions of increased intestinal peristalsis
6/4/2008 fremitus a tremor vibration in any part of the body that is detectable by palpation
6/5/2008 crepitation a sound like the rubbing of hair between the fingers, the sound on palpation of a bone fracture site
6/6/2008 jaundice  yellowing of the skin and whites of eyes by bilirubin, a bile pigment
6/9/2008 icterus the presence of jaundice seen in the sclera of the eye or skin
6/10/2008 fever a rise in body temperature above normal usually as a natural response to infection
6/11/2008 pallor a pale appearance to the skin
6/12/2008 edema the presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body
6/13/2008 bruit an unexpected audible swishing sound or murmur heard over an artery or vascular channel
6/16/2008 wheezing a musical sound that is most pronounced on the exhalation of air, indicates bronchospasm
6/17/2008 tachycardia an excessively rapid heart rate
6/18/2008 bradycardia an excessively slow heart rate
6/19/2008 drawer sign forward or backward sliding of the tibia indicating laxity or tear of the cruciate ligaments of the knee
6/20/2008 torticollis a contraction of the neck muscles producing twisting of the neck and unnatural head position
6/23/2008 vomiting the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth
6/24/2008 inflammation a localized response caused by distruction or injury of tissues resulting in pain, swelling, and redness
6/25/2008 pruritus itching manifested in animals as scratching either localized or generalized
6/26/2008 nystagmus the involuntary movement of the eyeballs either horizontally, vertically or mixed
6/27/2008 ataxia failure of muscular coordination
6/30/2008 vocalization the eliciting of sounds when painful areas are manipulated

July 2008   "Why are you so hyper?"

Date Word Definition
7/1/2008 hyperactive general restlessness or excessive movement
7/2/2008 hyperacusis abnormal acuteness of hearing due to increased irritability of the sensory neural mechanism
7/3/2008 hyperesthesia a neurologic symptom where there is an unusual increased or altered sensitivity to sensory stimuli
7/7/2008 hypercalcemia a medical condition in which abnormally high concentrations of calcium compounds are found in the bloodstream
7/8/2008 hypercapnia an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood
7/9/2008 hyperemesis excessive vomiting
7/10/2008 hyperglycemia too high a level of glucose (sugar) in the blood
7/11/2008 hyperosmia an exaggerated or abnormally acute sense of smell
7/14/2008 hyperopia farsightedness
7/15/2008 hyperplasia the abnormal multiplication or increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in a tissue
7/16/2008 hypersalemia an increase in the salt content of the circulating blood
7/17/2008 hypersensitivity an altered reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to a foreign substance
7/18/2008 hypersphyxia a condition of high blood pressure and increased circulatory activity
7/21/2008 hyperorality a condition in which inappropriate objects are placed in the mouth
7/22/2008 hyperextension extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit
7/23/2008 hyperpepsia abnormally rapid digestion
7/24/2008 hyperoxia an excess of oxygen in the system, resulting from exposure to high oxygen concentrations
7/25/2008 hyperphonia overuse of the voice, as by excessive loudness or tension of the vocal muscles
7/28/2008 hyperlogia excessive verbosity or loquacity
7/29/2008 hypervitaminosis a condition due to ingestion of an excess of one or more vitamins
7/30/2008 hyperventilation an increase in the rate or depth of breathing results in faintness, numbness around mouth/fingers/toes
7/31/2008 hypervascular abnormally vascular; containing an excessive number of blood vessels

August 2008    "Are You Warm or Is It Me?" 

Date Word Definition
8/1/2008 body temperature the normal internal temperature of a body
8/4/2008 room temperature the ordinary temperature (65° to 80°F) of the atmosphere in the laboratory
8/5/2008 freezing  the temperature where liquids (esp. water) become solid, (water freezes at 32°F or 0°C)
8/6/2008 boiling the temperature where liquids (esp. water) become vapor, (water boils at 212°F or 100°C)
8/7/2008 normal mouse 96.4 - 99.7°F or 35.8 - 37.6°C body temperature
8/8/2008 normal rat 96.6 - 99.5°F or 35.9 - 37.5°C body temperature
8/11/2008 normal hamster 98.6 - 100.4°F or 37 - 38°C body temperature
8/12/2008 normal gerbil 96.3 - 102.7°F or 35.7 - 39.3°C body temperature
8/13/2008 normal chicken 104 - 106°F or 40 - 41.2°C body temperature
8/14/2008 normal guinea pig 98.6 - 103.1°F or 37 -39.5°C body temperature
8/15/2008 normal rabbit 100.4 - 104°F or 38 - 40°C body temperature
8/18/2008 normal human 97.5 to 98.9°F or 36.4 - 37.2 °C body temperature
8/19/2008 poikilotherm one whose internal body temperature varies with that of the environment (cold-blooded)
8/20/2008 ectotherm one that does not generate its own body heat and must use an external source of heat to warm itself
8/21/2008 homeotherm one that maintains a constant internal body temperature
8/22/2008 endotherm one which is capable of generating its own body heat and maintaining a constant body temperature
8/25/2008 tepid moderately warm
8/26/2008 scald bring to a temperature just below the boiling point
8/27/2008 chill sensation of coldness, often accompanied by shivering and pallor of the skin
8/28/2008 frost weather cold enough to cause freezing

September 2008     This joint is hoppin'

Date Word Definition
9/2/2008 articular of or pertaining to a joint
9/3/2008 arthology the study and treatment of joints
9/4/2008 arthralgia pain in a joint
9/5/2008 arthrodynia characterised by pain in or about a joint, not dependent upon structural disease
9/8/2008 arthrosis a disease of a joint
9/9/2008 arthropathy any disease that affects joints
9/10/2008 artheotropic tending to affect joints
9/11/2008 arthrodysplasia hereditary congenital defect of joint development
9/12/2008 arthritis an inflammatory condition that affects joints
9/15/2008 arthritides plural of arthritis
9/16/2008 arthritic atrophy atrophy of muscles rendered inactive by a chronically inflamed or fixed joint
9/17/2008 arthrocentisis a needle is placed in a joint space to remove joint fluid or inject compounds
9/18/2008 articular capsule a sac enclosing a joint, formed by an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner synovial membrane
9/19/2008 articular cartilage  the cartilage covering the joint surfaces of the bones participating in a synovial joint
9/22/2008 articular cavity a joint cavity, the space bounded by synovial membrane and articular cartilages of all synovial joints
9/23/2008 articular corpuscles encapsulated nerve terminations within joint capsules
9/24/2008 articular lamella the compact layer of bone on its articular surface that is firmly attached to the articular cartilage
9/25/2008 articular labrum a fibrocartilaginous lip around the margin of the concave portion of some joints
9/26/2008 arthrochondritis  inflammation of an articular cartilage
9/29/2008 arthresthesia appreciation of sensation in joint surfaces
9/30/2008 arthrophyma an articular tumor or swelling

October 2008    "Scarry"  

Date Word Definition
10/1/2008 scar a mark left by a previous injury
10/2/2008 cicatrix the formation of new tissue in the process of wound healing
10/3/2008 keloid a sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar
10/6/2008 brand mark made by burning with a hot iron
10/7/2008 scarification the making of a number of superficial incisions in the skin resulting in scars
10/8/2008 scarify to abrade, scratch, or modify the surface
10/9/2008 morphea a skin lesion with a slightly depressed area of thickened dermal tissue white/yellow color with a pink halo
10/10/2008 adhesion a fibrous band or structure by which parts abnormally adhere
10/13/2008 blemish any mark, deformity or injury that diminishes beauty or disqualifies an animal from a show
10/14/2008 skin to become covered with skin; as, a wound skins over
10/15/2008 skin the external membranous integument of an animal
10/16/2008 flay to strip off the skin or surface
10/17/2008 keratosis a slightly raised, red or pink skin lesion that is abnormally sensitive to the effects of ultraviolet light
10/20/2008 tattoo an indelible mark for identification made by puncturing the skin and introducing pigment into the punctures
10/21/2008 bleed to emit blood; to lose blood
10/22/2008 hemorrhage  the escape of blood from the vessels
10/23/2008 sanguinary attended with much bloodshed; bloody
10/24/2008 rabies a virus that attacks the nervous system resulting in ascending paraylsis or madness, usually fatal 
10/27/2008 derriengue a paralytic form of rabies transmitted by vampire bats
10/28/2008 vampire a species of bat that feeds on blood, found in South America
10/29/2008 bloodsucker any animal that sucks blood
10/30/2008 vampirism the practice of drinking blood from a person or animal
10/31/2008 maggot larval form of flies, medically used to clean wounds of necrotic tissue and aid healing

November 2008    "A State of Being"    

Date Word Definition
11/3/2008 extant still in existence; not extinct or destroyed or lost
11/4/2008 conscious having present knowledge or perception of oneself, one's acts and surroundings
11/5/2008 alert attentive and quick to think or act
11/6/2008 aware bearing in mind; attentive to, knowing
11/7/2008 cognizant having knowledge or understanding
11/10/2008 bright having a clear, quick intellect; intelligent
11/11/2008 cognition the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning and judging
11/12/2008 orientation awareness of one's environment, with reference to person, time and place
11/13/2008 perception the conscious mental registration of a sensory stimulus
11/14/2008 apathy the lack of feeling or emotion, indifference
11/17/2008 hibernation cessation from or slowing of activity during the winter; especially slowing of metabolism in some animals
11/18/2008 torpid in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation
11/19/2008 oblivious lacking remembrance, memory, or mindful attention
11/24/2008 lethargic deficient in alertness or activity
11/25/2008 unconscious not having present knowledge or perception of oneself, one's acts and surroundings
11/26/2008 death the cessation of all vital phenomena without capability of resuscitation
11/27/2008 extinct no longer in existence; lost or especially having died out leaving no living representatives
11/28/2008 resurrection a rising again; the resumption of vigor

December 2008    "The Histology Lab"

Date Word Definition
12/1/2008 cassette a small plastic box ex: tissues are placed in a cassette for processing
12/2/2008 frangible breakable  ex: tissue cassettes have frangible hinges
12/3/2008 fluidic relating to the characteristics of fluids ex: tissue cassettes feature a fluidic flow design for better processing and embedding
12/4/2008 insulation a material that reduces or prevents the transmission of heat ex: specimens are shipped in insulated containers
12/5/2008 refrigerant a cooling substance ex: refrigerant is needed when shipping specimens especially in July
12/8/2008 tactile perceptible to the sense of touch ex: tactile assurance of a sealed specimen container is another safeguard against leakage
12/9/2008 visual perceptible by the sense of sight ex: the visual change in the culture indicated contamination
12/10/2008 sterile free from living germs or microorganisms  ex: sterile instruments are needed for cell culture
12/11/2008 serrated having a notched edge or sawlike teeth ex: serrated scissors cut cartilege better than other types of scissors
12/12/2008 dissection cutting so as to separate into pieces  ex: animal dissection is done to harvest organs for histopathologic examination
12/15/2008 embedding to infiltrate with molten paraffin that solidifies ex: embedding the tissue allows it to be sliced thinly
12/16/2008 fixation the preservation and hardening of tissue to retain the shape it had in the living body ex: fixation is completed before embedding
12/17/2008 sectioned to cut or divide tissue for fixation or microscopic examination ex: the liver was sectioned into single cell thicknesses
12/18/2008 decalcification to remove calcium or calcium compounds from tissues ex: decalcification of the bones is done so they can be sectioned
12/19/2008 microtome an instrument for cutting very thin sections of tissue for microscopic examination
12/22/2008 cryostat an apparatus for maintaining a temperature below 0°C containing a microtome ex:frozen tissue was sectioned in a cryostat
12/23/2008 processing to put through the steps of a prescribed procedure ex: the processing of tissues involves different concentrations of alcohol

January 2009      "A" Word to Remember   

Date Word Definition
1/5/2009 abnormal not normal, contrary to the usual structure, position, behaviour or rule
1/6/2009 acanthocyte RBC characterized by multiple spiny cytoplasmic projections
1/7/2009 acute having a short and relatively severe course
1/8/2009 addiction  the state of being dependent on some habit, especially strong dependence on a drug
1/9/2009 adhesion a fibrous band or structure by which parts abnormally adhere
1/12/2009 adipose fat or tissue containing fat cells
1/13/2009 agonal relating to the process of dying or the moment of death, because of the notion that dying is painful
1/14/2009 alethia rarely used term for an incapacity to forget past events
1/15/2009 alopecia baldness, absence of the hair from skin areas where it normally is present
1/16/2009 abscess a localized collection of pus buried in tissues, organs or confined spaces
1/19/2009 altricial young that are very immature and helpless at birth requiring the care of the parents for some time
1/20/2009 ambulatory an organism which is able to move from place to place
1/21/2009 anesthesia the loss of feeling or sensation, especially pain
1/22/2009 athymic having a congenital absence of the thymus gland, often with associated immunodeficiency
1/23/2009 aorta  the largest artery in the body which has its origin at the heart
1/26/2009 apnea cessation of breathing
1/27/2009 ampule a hermetically sealed container, usually made of glass, containing a sterile medicinal solution
1/28/2009 arbovirus a virus which uses Arthropods as vectors and is transmitted in their saliva to the definitive host
1/29/2009 arrhythmia any variation from the normal rhythm of the heart beat
1/30/2009 aseptic freedom from infection or septic material, sterile

February 2009     "B" Mine    

Date Word Definition
2/2/2009 benign something that does not metastasise and treatment or removal is curative
2/3/2009 benzocaine topical anesthetic that prevents transmission of impulses along nerves and at nerve endings
2/4/3009 bilateral having two sides or pertaining to both sides
2/5/2009 bioethics the discourse on the life sciences and their potential impact on our society
2/6/2009 biopsy a procedure that obtains a tissue specimen for microscopic analysis to establish a diagnosis
2/9/2009 blepharitis inflammation of the eyelids
2/10/2009 booster a dose given after an initial dose to enhance the effect, usually of antigens for antibody production
2/11/2009 bradycardia a slowness of the heart beat, as evidenced by slowing of the pulse rate
2/12/2009 bronchus any of the larger air passages of the lungs
2/13/2009 bronchiole refers to the smaller airways in the lungs
2/16/2009 buccal pertaining to or directed toward the cheek
2/17/2009 bursa a fibrous sac that contains a small amt of synovial fluid, facilitate fluid movement of joints, tendons
2/18/2009 buffy coat thin, pale, beige layer of leucocytes on top of the red cells when whole blood is centrifuged
2/19/2009 bacteremia the presence of viable bacteria circulating in the bloodstream
2/20/2009 balance an apparatus for weighing
2/23/2009 band cells immature neutrophils released from the bone marrow reserve in response to acute demand
2/24/2009 barbiturate a widely used group of sedative drugs made from barbituric acid, controlled substances
2/25/2009 bleb protrusion from cell or skin surface, usually hemispherical, may be fluid filled
2/26/2009 brachial pertaining or belonging to the arm
2/27/2009 bacilli rod shaped bacterial cells

March 2009      "Don't have a spasm"       

Date Word Definition
3/2/2009 spasm a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles
3/3/2009 spastic muscles are stiff due to spasm and movements are awkward
3/4/2009 spasmogen a substance that induces spasms
3/5/2009 spasmolysant a substance that relieves spasms
3/6/2009 cramp a painful muscle spasm caused by prolonged tetanic contraction
3/9/2009 tetany a condition due to abnormal calcium metabolism marked by twitches, spasms, cramps, convulsions
3/10/2009 tetanus isease caused by Clostridium tetani which causes muscle contraction and generalized spasm
3/11/2009 charley horse localised pain or muscle stiffness following a contusion of a muscle
3/12/2009 malleation swift twitching of the hands
3/13/2009 trismus disturbance of the trigeminal nerve causing spasm of the masticatory nerve and difficulty opening the mouth
3/16/2009 hiccup a spasm of the diaphragm
3/17/2009 blepharospasm twitching of an eyelid
3/18/2009 esophagospasm a spasm of the esophagus
3/19/2009 bronchospasm spasmotic contractions of the bronchial muscle
3/20/2009 vasospasm a spasm of the blood vessels resulting in a decrease in the inner diameter
3/23/2009 ureterospasm a spasm of the ureters
3/24/2009 gastrospasm a spasm of the stomach
3/25/2009 pharyngospasm a spasm of the pharynx
3/26/2009 laryngospasm spasmotic closure of the larynx
3/27/2009 achalasia the failure of the smooth muscles in the digestive tract to relax, especially the sphincters of the stomach
3/30/2009 hysterospasm a spasm of the uterus
3/31/2009 opisthotonus a spasm where the heels and head are bent backward and the body bowed forward

April 2009     "Infection"

Date Word Definition
4/1/2009 infection invasion of tissue by microorganisms causing damage and an immune response
4/2/2009 airborne infection caused by inhalation of organisms suspended on dust particles or water dropplets
4/3/2009 direct infection produced by direct contact with an infected individual
4/6/2009 indirect infection transmitted by water, food or other means of conveyance
4/7/2009 iatrogenic infection caused by activity of physicians or surgeons
4/8/2009 subclinical infection infection with no clinical signs
4/9/2009 latent infection an established infection that is dormant and signs of disease are not detected
4/10/2009 secondary infection infection with an organism following an infection by a different organism
4/13/2009 incubation infectious disease from entrance of the pathogen to appearance of clinical signs
4/14/2009 MRSA Methacillin Resistant Staphlycoccus aureus
4/15/2009 pyogenic infection caused by pus producing organisms S. aureua and S. pyogens are implied
4/16/2009 antibiotic a substance that has the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms
4/17/2009 resistance an organisms ability to be unaffected by poisons, toxin or noxious agents
4/20/2009 cryptogenic infection infection with unclear or undefinable pathogenesis
4/21/2009 endogenous infection due to organisms present in the body in a dormant state
4/22/2009 exogenous infection caused by organisms not normally found in the body, gaining entrance from the environment
4/23/2009 zoogenic infection caused by animal organisms
4/24/2009 phytogenic infection caused by plant organisms
4/27/2009 herd infection term for infection in any large group
4/28/2009 mixed infections infections with more than one pathogenic organism present
4/29/2009 cross infection infection transmitted between individuals infected with different microorganisms
4/30/2009 focal infection infection confined to a single tissue or organ

May 2009    "Go Hog Wild!"  

Date Word Definition
5/1/2009 swine Sus scrofa domestica
5/4/2009 sow a female swine
5/5/2009 boar a male swine
5/6/2009 barrow a castrated male swine
5/7/2009 gilt a female swine before having a litter through the delivery of the first litter
5/8/2009 farrow to give birth
5/11/2009 boar effect exposing a group of gilts to a boar to induce synchronized estrus
5/12/2009 hog generic swine does not indicate gender
5/13/2009 shoat an old term to indicate a growing pig
5/14/2009 porcine pertaining to, characteristic of, or derived from swine
5/15/2009 snout nose and upper jaw of swine
5/18/2009 rooting a behavior in swine where the nose is used to turn up the ground in search of food
5/19/2009 Yucatan a miniture pig weighing 20-45kg, black skin, short snout waddles
5/20/2009 Hanford largest mini pig weighing 25-50kg, white with a long snout
5/21/2009 Sinclair a mini pig weighing 16-42kg, comes in white, dark and spotted with a short snout
5/22/2009 Göttingen smallest mini pig 14-39kg, white with a short snout
5/25/2009 omnivore animal that eats both plants and meat
5/26/2009 sounder a herd of swine
5/27/2009 snare a capture device consisting of a cable or rope that is placed over the upper snout and tightened
5/28/2009 board a solid panel that is used to block access and herd swine into the desired location
5/29/2009 sling a canvas hammock that suspends swine with the legs off the floor surface, a type of restraint

June 2009    "That IS Big!"

Date Word Definition
6/1/2009 hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver
6/2/2009 nephromegaly enlargement of the kidney(s)
6/3/2009 megaesophagus great enlargement of the lower portion of the esophagus
6/4/2009 acromegaly condition resulting from excess production of growth hormone, enlarged bones of the face, skull, limbs
6/5/2009 splenomegaly enlagrement of the spleen
6/8/2009 adenomegaly enlargement of one or both adrenal glands
6/9/2009 cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
6/10/2009 macrocephaly enlargement of the head
6/11/2009 macrocyte a red blood cell larger than normal
6/12/2009 macrophage a large phagocytic cell
6/15/2009 macroscopic large enough to be seen with the unaided eye, seen without the use of a microscope
6/16/2009 macroparasite a parasite that is visible to the naked eye
6/17/2009 macrofauna animals large enough to be seen with the naked eye
6/18/2009 macroblepharia abnormal largeness of the eyelid
6/19/2009 megacolon abnormally large or dilated colon
6/22/2009 megalophthalmus abnormally large eyes
6/23/2009 macrotia abnormally large ears
6/24/2009 megadontia possessing very large teeth
6/25/2009 macrorhinia possessing a very large nose
6/26/2009 macrostomia possessing a very large mouth
6/29/2009 magnification the process of making something appear larger
6/30/2009 angiomegaly enlargement of blood vessels or lymphatics

July 2009       "I Can See Clearly Now"

Date Word Definition
7/1/2009 myopia an error of visual focusing that causes difficulty seeing distant objects (nearsightedness)
7/2/2009 hyperopia an error of visual focusing that causes difficulty in seeing near objects (farsightedness)
7/3/2009 amblyopia condition in which the vision in a non-dominant eye is poor because of a visual abnormality early in life
7/6/2009 strabismus condition in which the lines of sight of the two eyes cannot be directed at the same point under normal conditions
7/7/2009 astigmatism condition in which the cornea of the eye is asymmetrically curved, causing distorted vision
7/8/2009 presbyopia age-associated progressive loss of the focusing power of the lens resulting in hyperopia
7/9/2009 emmetropia the ideal optical condition, parallel rays coming to a focus on the retina, normal vision
7/10/2009 cyclopelgic paralysis of the ciliary muscles resulting in the inability to change focal distances
7/13/2009 glaucoma  a disease causing increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor
7/14/2009 uveitis inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the posterior pigmented layer of the iris
7/15/2009 dyscoria abnormality in the shape of the pupil
7/16/2009 photophobia an abnormal visual intolerance to light
7/17/2009 chromatopsia condition in which objects appear to be abnormally colored or tinged with color
7/20/2009 diplopia condition of seeing two images of the same object, double vision
7/21/2009 protanopia condition of the eyes buldging forward
7/22/2009 entropion inversion or turning inward of the border of the eyelid against the eyeball
7/23/2009 polyopia condition of seeing multiple images of the same object
7/24/2009 oscillopsia the subjective sensation of oscillation of objects viewed
7/27/2009 hypheme condition of hemorrhage in the anterior chamber of the eye
7/28/2009 achromatopsia a severe congenital deficiency in color perception
7/29/2009 esotropia cross-eyed, eye misalignment in which one eye deviates inward (toward nose) while the other fixates normally
7/30/2009 anisometropia a large difference in refractive error between the two eyes
7/31/2009 dyschromatopsia a general term for color vision abnormalities

August 2009        "How Much?!"

Date Word Definition
8/3/2009 million 106
8/4/2009 billion 109
8/5/2009 trillion 1012
8/6/2009 quadrillion 1015
8/7/2009 quintillion 1018
8/10/2009 sextillion 1021
8/11/2009 septillion 1024
8/12/2009 octillion 1027
8/13/2009 nonillion  1030
8/14/2009 decillion 1033
8/17/2009 undecillion 1036
8/18/2009 duodecillion 1039
8/19/2009 tredecillion 1042
8/20/2009 quattuordecillion 1045
8/21/2009 quindecillion 1048
8/24/2009 sexdecillion 1051
8/25/2009 septendecillion 1054
8/26/2009 octodecillion 1057
8/27/2009 novemdecillion 1060
8/28/2009 vigintillion 1063
8/31/2009 duotrigintillion 1099

September 2009      "Its Just A Red Blood Cell"

Date Word Definition
9/2/2009 RBC red blood cells
9/3/2009 NRBC nucleated red blood cells, immature form that has not lost the nucleus
9/4/2009 Heinz body dark-staining refractile material that indicate irreversibly denatured and precipitated hemoglobin in RBCs    
9/8/2009 spherocyte smaller RBCs, densely staining spherical cell with no central pallor
9/9/2009 reticulocyte RBC cell displaying two+  discrete irregular shaped aggregates when stained with New Methylene Blue -fragments of the nucleus
9/10/2009 poikilocyte irregular form of RBC found in cases of anemia, probably a degenerated RBC 
9/11/2009 target cell RBC in anemia/splenectomy, a dark center surrounded by a light band that is encircled by a darker ring; it resembles a target   
9/12/2009 crenated cell erythrocytes that have shrunk (in hypertonic medium) so that the surface is spiky
9/15/2009 siderocyte  an erythocyte containing increased numbers of ferritin granules which stain blue with Prussian Blue stain   
9/16/2009 Howell-Jolly body found in RBCs: a small, dark, round inclussion occurring eccentrically 
9/17/2009 polychromasia condition where RBCs stain red, blue, or both 
9/18/2009 hypochromasia anemia where the amount of hemoglobin in RBCs is less than normal, cells look pale
9/19/2009 hyperchromasia condition where the amount of hemoglobin in RBCs is more than normal, cells look dark
9/22/2009 schistocytes a fragmented part of a red blood cell typically irregularly shaped, jagged and asymmetrical   
9/23/2009 anisocytosis a condition where the red blood cells are unequal in size, evident on blood smear 
9/24/2009 echinocyte a cell with 10–30 spicules distributed regularly over the surface, crenated cell 
9/25/2009 acanthoscyte a spheroidal cell with 3–12 often club-like spicules of uneven length, irregularly distributed over the cell surface   
9/26/2009 elliptocyte an oval-shaped cell ranging from that slightly more oval than the discocyte to almost rod-shaped   
9/29/2009 keratocyte a cell displaying one or more notches. Horn-like projections extend from one or more borders of the notch
9/30/2009 dacrocyte a tear-shaped cell with an extended tail

October 2009        "Joint" me in some fun    

Date Word Definition
10/1/2009 arthrogram an X-ray procedure involving the injection of radiopaque dye into a joint space
10/2/2009 arthroscopy introduction of a fiberoptic scope into a joint space to  visualize or repair internal structures
10/5/2009 arthrotomy a surgical incision into a joint.
10/6/2009 arthrostomy establishment of a temporary opening into a joint cavity
10/7/2009 arthroplasty the surgical repair of a joint
10/8/2009 arthrorisis an operation for limiting motion in a joint in cases of undue mobility from paralysis
10/9/2009 arthrodesis the surgical immobilization of a joint (joint fusion)
10/12/2009 arthrolysis restoration of mobility in stiff and ankylosed joints
10/13/2009 arthroclasia the forcible breaking up of the adhesions in ankylosi
10/14/2009 arthrometer a calibrated device designed to measure the arc or range of motion of a joint
10/15/2009 arthrogryposis persistent flexure or contracture of a joint
10/16/2009 arthrolith a calcified deposit in a joint
10/19/2009 joint mice ossicles (calcifications or bone chips) within joint space
10/20/2009 arthrophyte an abnormal growth in a joint
10/21/2009 arthrectomy excision of a joint
10/22/2009 synovium a synovial membrane that lines a joint and secretes a lubricating fluid
10/23/2009 synovia the clear thick fluid found in joints that acts as a lubricant, secreted by the synovial membrane
10/26/2009 synovioma a tumor arising from the synovial membrane with in a joint
10/27/2009 synovitis the inflamation of the synovial membrane within a joint
10/28/2009 arthrocele a swollen joint
10/29/2009 arthroncus swelling of a joint
10/30/2009 arthritis inflammation of a joint caused by any number of infections, diseases or injuries

November 2009     "It's a Small World After All"

Date Word Definition
11/2/2009 atom a particle of matter indivisible by chemical means, the fundamental building block of the chemical elements
11/3/2009 molecule the result of two or more atoms combining by chemical bonding
11/4/2009 microscopic only able to be observed under magnification, not visible to the unaided eye
11/5/2009 nanoparticle a microscopic particle whose size is measured in nanometers
11/6/2009 cell microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded by semipermeable membrane with one or more nuclei, able of performing all life functions
11/9/2009 bacteria prokaryotic round, spiral, or rod-shaped single-celled microorganisms, form in colonies, noted for biochemical effects& pathogenicity
11/10/2009 virus submicroscopic infective agents that have a protein coat around RNA or DNA core but no semipermeable membrane
11/11/2009 fungus saprophytic&parasitic spore-producing eukaryotic organisms that lack chlorophyll (molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, yeasts)
11/12/2009 yeast a unicellular fungus that has little or no mycelium and reproduces asexually
11/13/2009 prion a protein particle that lacks nucleic acid and has been implicated as the cause of various neurodegenerative diseases
11/16/2009 organelle a structurally discrete component of a cell
11/17/2009 mitochondria a small intracellular organelle which is responsible for energy production and cellular respiration
11/18/2009 DNA molecule that encodes genetic information in the nucleus of cells, determines the structure, function and behavior of the cell
11/19/2009 RNA a nucleic acid found in all living cells, plays a role in transferring information from DNA to the protein-forming system of the cell
11/20/2009 golgi apparatus intracellular stack of membrane bounded vesicles in which glycosylation and packaging of secreted proteins takes place
11/23/2009 vacuole the large vesicles found in plant cells that provide both storage and space filling functions
11/24/2009 endosome endocytotic vesicle derived from the plasma membrane
11/25/2009 peroxisome organelle containing peroxidase and catalase, sometimes as a large crystal, a site of oxygen utilisation, but not of ATP synthesis
11/30/2009 lysosome membrane bounded cytoplasmic organelle having a variety of hydrolytic enzymes, released into a phagosome or to the exterior

December 2009   "You rock!"    

Date Word Definition
12/1/2009 lithology the sum of what is known regarding calculi and their treatment
12/2/2009 calculus an abnormal concretion within the animal body composed of mineral salts, a rock or stone
12/3/2009 calculi multiple calculus
12/4/2009 calculosis a condition characterized by the formations of calculi and concretions
12/7/2009 lithiasis a condition characterized by the formations of calculi and concretions
12/8/2009 lithogenesis the formation of calculi
12/9/2009 cholelithiasis calculi in the bile duct or gallbladder made of calcium and blood pigments
12/10/2009 broncholith calculus in the air passage
12/11/2009 gastrolith calculus in the stomach
12/14/2009 rhinolith calculus in the nasal passages
12/15/2009 cystolith calculus in the urinary bladder
12/16/2009 litholysis the dissolving of calculi in the urinary bladder
12/17/2009 lithoclysmia treatment of urinary calculi by injecting solvent liquids into the bladder
12/18/2009 lithotomy the incision of a duct, bladder or organ for the removal of a stone
12/21/2009 lithotripsy the crushing of stones either manually or with sound waves
12/22/2009 lithophone a device for detecting calculi in the urinary bladder using sound
12/23/2009 lithagogue expelling calculi or a remedy that promotes the expulsion of calculi
12/24/2009 lithuresis passing of calculi with urine from the urinary bladder

January 2010      "Everything's New"  

Date Word Definition
1/4/2010 newborn recently born
1/5/2010 neonate a newborn
1/6/2010 neofetal referring to the period between the embryonic and fetal stages of development
1/7/2010 neogala the first milk produced after birth, colostrum
1/8/2010 neostomy surgical construction of a new or artificial opening
1/11/2010 neotype a strain of bacteria that replaces a type culture that no longer exists, agrees with original description of taxon
1/12/2010 neoarthrosis a new joint/an artifical joint from an ununited fracture, or from a total joint replacement operation
1/13/2010 neobiogenesis  the theory that life can originate from nonliving matter
1/14/2010 neocyte an immature form of a leukocyte (WBC)
1/15/2010 neopallium the part of the cerebral cortex showing stratification and organization of the most hightly evolved type of brain tissue
1/18/2010 neoformation indicates the process of regeneration, or a regenerated tissue or part, also formation of cancers
1/19/2010 neogenesis regeneration of a tissue or part
1/20/2010 neoteny the persistence in the reproductively mature adult of characters usually associated with the immature organism
1/21/2010 neoplasia literally new growth, usually refers to abnormal new growth and thus means the same as tumor
1/22/2010 neoplasm new and abnormal growth of tissue, which may be benign or cancerous
1/25/2010 neopathy a new disease
1/26/2010 neomembrane a false membrane
1/27/2010 neoantigen an intracellular antigen
1/28/2010 neomorph a part or organ recently acquired in the course of evolution
1/29/2010 neologism a newly coined word or a meaningless word uttered by a psychotic or delirious person

February 2010      "Skinny Words"      

Date Word Definition
2/1/2010 anorexia diminished appetite
2/2/2010 cachexia a general weight loss and wasting occurring in the course of a chronic disease
2/3/2010 emaciated extremely thin or physically wasted
2/4/2010 malnutrition weight loss due to insufficient or unbalanced diet
2/5/2010 unthrifty a failure to grow or develop normally as a result of disease
2/8/2010 thin not full or well grown; wanting in plumpness
2/9/2010 slender small or narrow in proportion to height
2/10/2010 runt any animal which is unusually small, as compared with others of its kind
2/11/2010 diet  the intake of food and drink, especially one planned to include or exclude items for health
2/12/2010 underweight weighing less than average for age, sex or breed
2/15/2010 atrophy a wasting away, a reduction in size of a cell, tissue, organ or part
2/16/2010 infirm weak from disease or old age
2/17/2010 fragility the quality or state of being easily broken or destroyed
2/18/2010 starvation a severe or total lack of nutrients needed for the maintenance of life
2/19/2010 stunted a condition where growth and development are prevented or slowed
2/22/2010 wasting process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue loss
2/23/2010 apepsia cessation or failure of the digestive function
2/24/2010 aperitive an appetite stimulant
2/25/2010 resorption the loss of substance through physiologic or pathologic means
2/26/2010 dehydration removal of water, the condition resulting from excessive loss of body water

March 2010     "Looking Good!"  

Date Word Definition
3/1/2010 hygiene a condition or practice which promotes good health
3/2/2010 grooming an animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface
3/3/2010 bathing  the act of washing an animal to remove dirt or contaminants from the skin and hair
3/4/2010 barbering usually harmless, a dominant rodent chews fur off the face/body of a submissive cage mate
3/5/2010 trimming cutting to the desired size or shape applies to fur, nails, hooves, beaks, etc.
3/8/2010 brush a tool for maintaining the hair or coat made up of bristles anchored in a wooden/plastic base
3/9/2010 comb a device made of solid material, flat, always toothed, and is used for straightening and cleaning hair
3/10/2010 curry comb an oval tool for horses made of rubber with rows of rubber nubs used to loosen dirt
3/11/2010 dandy brush a long stiff brisltled brush used in a flicking motion to remove loose hair and dirt after the curry comb
3/12/2010 body brush a short soft bristled brush used in long strokes to smooth the hair down after using the dandy brush
3/15/2010 mud brush a very stiff bristled brush used to remove dried mud from horses, not to be used on the face
3/16/2010 shedding blade a metal looped blade with dulled teeth on one edge, used to remove hair just before it is shed
3/17/2010 slicker brush a brush with fine metal bristles bent at ends in a 30° angle for removing loose undercoat
3/18/2010 float teeth using a file for smoothing points off molars in horses caused by uneven wear
3/19/2010 shoeing applying a metal or synthetic U-shaped piece to horse hooves to protect from wear or provide traction
3/22/2010 hoof trim removing excess hoof growth on horses/ruminants, hooves grow constantly
3/23/2010 nail trim removing excess nail growth, nails grow constantly
3/24/2010 beak trim removal of excess growth of beak due to diet, genetics or disease by grinding, sanding or cutting
3/25/2010 teeth trim cutting continuously growing rodent incisors when malocclusion prevents eating and normal wear
3/26/2010 preen a bird's cleaning of feathers and spreading oil from a gland at the base of the tail
3/29/2010 uropygial gland a gland in birds on the dorsum of the tail that secretes oil for waterproofing feathers
3/30/2010 sebaceous gland a cutaneous gland that secretes sebum (usually into a hair follicle) for lubricating hair and skin in mammals
3/31/2010 alopecia loss of hair where it is normally present can be caused by parasites, disease conditions, or barbering    

April 2010     "Cancer"  

Date Word Definition
4/1/2010 cancer  term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues
4/2/2010 neoplasm an abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should
4/5/2010 metastasis spread of cancer from one part of the body to another
4/6/2010 aggressive a quickly growing cancer
4/7/2010 alopecia loss of hair where it normally grows, a side effect of many cancer therapies
4/8/2010 anaplastic cancer cells that divide rapidly and have little or no resemblance to normal cells
4/9/2010 anorexia abnormal loss of the appetite for food, a side effect of some cancers and cancer treatments
4/12/2010 apoptosis cell death, a series of molecular steps in a cell leads to its death.It is the way to get rid of unneeded or abnormal cells
4/13/2010 baseline  initial measurement taken at an early point to represent a beginning condition, used for comparison to look for changes
4/14/2010 benign not cancerous, tumors may grow larger but do not spread to other parts of the body
4/15/2010 bilateral cancer occurs in both paired organs, such as both breasts or both ovaries
4/16/2010 biomarker biological molecule found in blood, body fluids, tissues that is a sign of a normal/abnormal process, or condition/disease
4/19/2010 biopsy removal of cells or tissues for examination by a pathologist
4/20/2010 malignant cancerous, malignant tumors can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body
4/21/2010 cachexia loss of body weight and muscle mass, and weakness that may occur in patients with cancer
4/22/2010 carcinoma cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs
4/23/2010 carcinogen any substance that causes cancer
4/26/2010 sarcoma cancer that begins in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat
4/27/2010 chemosensitizer cancer that begins in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat
4/28/2010 chemotherapy treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells
4/29/2010 remission decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of cancer
4/30/2010 debulking surgical removal of as much tumor as possible,  to increase chances that chemo/radiation therapy will kill all remaining tumor cells

May 2010   "I can't hear you"      

Date Word Definition
5/3/2010 deafness a condition in which the sense of hearing in both ears is not functional for ordinary purposes of life
5/4/2010 tinnitis a noise in the ears, as ringing, buzzing, roaring, clicking, etc.
5/5/2010 hearing the sensation of sound
5/6/2010 cerumen the waxlike secretion found within the external meatus of the ear
5/7/2010 visual hearing lip reading
5/10/2010 monoaural hearing hearing with one ear
5/11/2010 audiophone a device for aiding the deaf to hear
5/12/2010 audiometry the testing of the sense of hearing
5/13/2010 audition the act of hearing
5/14/2010 aural pertaining to or percieved by the ear
5/17/2010 ausculatate to examine by listening, usually to the sounds of the thorax or abdomen
5/18/2010 auriscalpium an instrument for scooping or scraping foreign matter from the ear
5/19/2010 otoscope an instrument for visualizing or inspecting the ear
5/20/2010 otomycosis a fungal infection of the ear canal
5/21/2010 Otodectes a species of mite found in the ear
5/24/2010 otitis inflammation of the ear
5/25/2010 otalgia pain in the ear
5/26/2010 otalgic pertaining to earache
5/27/2010 othematoma  the condition where the external ear tissue swells due to bleeding between the skin & cartilage
5/28/2010 othelcosis ulceration of the ear canal or external ear
5/31/2010 otorrhea discharge from the ear, especially a purulent one

June 2010     "Cell Types"   

Date Word Definition
6/1/2010 myocyte a muscle cell
6/2/2010 myelocyte an early stage of immature leukocytes
6/3/2010 hepatocyte epithelial cell of liver
6/4/2010 gangliocyte a nerve cell which is not located within the central nervous system
6/7/2010 alveolar cell an single cell that forms the air sac within the lung where O2 is carried to the exchange surface
6/8/2010 dendritic cell found in germinal centers of spleen and lymph nodes, retain antigen for long periods
6/9/2010 lipocyte fat-storing cell
6/10/2010 erythrocyte a red blood cell
6/11/2010 leukocyte a white blood cell
6/14/2010 thrombocyte a blood platelet
6/15/2010 gametocyte a cell capable of dividing to produce gametes, e.g., a spermatocyte or oocyte
6/16/2010 astrocyte largest and most numerous neuroglial cells found in the brain and spinal cord
6/17/2010 neuron the cellular unit of the central and peripheral nervous systems
6/18/2010 osteocyte osteoblast that is embedded in bony tissue and which is relatively inactive
6/21/2010 osteoclast large multinucleate cell formed from differentiated macrophage, responsible for breakdown of bone
6/22/2010 chief cell the predominant cell type of a gland
6/23/2010 mast cell resident cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin sulphate
6/24/2010 histiocyte long lived resident macrophage found within tissues
6/25/2010 plasmacyte a type of non-granular, basophilic leukocyte that produces antibodies
6/28/2010 keratocyte one of the flattened connective tissue cells in the layers of the cornea
6/29/2010 epithelial cell one of the many varieties of cell's that form epithelium
6/30/2010 stem cell cell that, upon division, produces dissimilar daughters, one replacing the original stem cell, the other differentiating further

July 2010    "Have you taken your vitamins?"

Date Word Definition
7/1/2010 vitamin general term for unrelated organic substances necessary in small amounts for normal metabolic function
7/2/2010 Vit. A fat soluble in 2 forms, needed for retinal and epithelial health
7/5/2010 Vit. B complex group of water soluble substances
7/6/2010 Niacin  in the Vit B complex, vasodilating properties, deficency results in dermatitis, diarrhea, mental disturbances
7/7/2010 PABA para-aminobenzoic acid in the B complex, is a growth factor in rats and chicks
7/8/2010 Vit. B1 thiamine, involved with carbohydrate metabolosm
7/9/2010 Vit. B2 riboflavin involved with oxadative process, promotes growth in rats
7/12/2010 Vit. B6 group of substances including pyridoxine,pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, concerned with the metabolism of amino acids
7/13/2010 Vit. B12 cyanocobalamin is necessary for hematopoiesis specifically the maturation of RBCs
7/14/2010 Vit. B conjugate folic acid is an essential growth factor in many species and has a hematopoietic influence
7/15/2010 Vit. C ascorbic acid a required vitamin in primates, g. pig - deficiency results in anemia, muscle wasting, bruising & hemorrhages
7/16/2010 Vit. D fat soluble vitamin, calciferol, necessary for ossification of bones and the absorption of calcium and phosphorus
7/19/2010 Vit. D2 ergocalciferol is a synthetic that is an active form for treatment of deficiencies
7/20/2010 Vit. D3 cholecalciferol the required form of Vit D for new world monkeys
7/21/2010 Vit. E a group of fat soluble vitamins, important for reproduction
7/22/2010 Vit. E1 alpha-tocopherol, an important antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the body
7/23/2010 Vit. G riboflavin is involved in hydrogen transport and is essential to growth and life
7/26/2010 Vit. H biotin (Vit B7) involved with metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
7/27/2010 Vit. K a group of water soluble vitamins involved with the clotting of blood
7/28/2010 Vit. K1 a prothrombinogenic agent also called phylloquinone
7/29/2010 Vit. L anthranilic acid, a factor necessary for lactation in rats
7/30/2010 Vit. M folic acid (Vit B conjugate) is an essential growth factor in many species and has a hematopoietic influence

August 2010    "On the Nose"

Date Word Definition
8/2/2010 rhinoplasty plastic surgery on the nose, reconstructive, restorative or cosmetic
8/3/2010 rhinorrhea runny nose, free discharge of thin muscus secretions from the nose
8/4/2010 rhinitis inflammation of the mucus membranes of the nose
8/5/2010 rhinodynia pain in the nose
8/6/2010 rhinolith a nasal stone or concretion
8/9/2010 rhinopathy any disease of the nose
8/10/2010 rhinophonia a nasal twang or quality to the voice
8/11/2010 rhinoscope a speculum for use in nasal examinations
8/12/2010 rhinorrhagia epistaxis, nose bleed
8/13/2010 rhinostenosis a narrowing of a nasal passage
8/16/2010 rhinovaccination application of a vaccine to the mucus membranes of the nose
8/17/2010 rhinostegnosis obstruction of a nasal passage
8/18/2010 nares the external opening of the nose, nostrils
8/19/2010 naris one of the external openings of the nose
8/20/2010 nasal pertaining to the nose
8/23/2010 nasitis inflammation of the nose
8/24/2010 naso-oral pertaining to or involving the nose and the mouth
8/25/2010 nasoscope a lighted instrument for inspecting the nasal cavity
8/26/2010 nasograph an instrument for measuring the nose
8/27/2010 nasomanometer an instrument for measuring intranasal pressure
8/30/2010 rhinederma edema of the nose, swelling with fluid in subcutaneous spaces
8/31/2010 rhinesthesia the sense of smell    

September 2010    "In an anesthetic plane"   

Date Word Definition
9/1/2010 anesthesia loss of normal feeling or sensation especially as it pertains to pain
9/2/2010 general anesthesia induction of analgesia with loss of consciousness, muscle relaxation and amnesia
9/3/2010 gas anesthetic a gas or a liquid with sufficient vapor pressure to produce general anesthesia when breathed   
9/7/2010 inhalation anesthesia gases of liquid anesthetic agents that are absorbed into the blood via the lungs
9/8/2010 Isoflurane a common gas anesthetic with rapid induction and recovery times
9/9/2010 Sevoflurane a next generation gas anesthetic with rapid induction and recovery, used in non-rebreathing systems
9/10/2010 IV anesthesia liquid anesthetic agents placed directly in the blood causing rapid unconsciousness
9/11/2010 thiopental sodium an ultra short acting barbiturate used to induce anesthesia 
9/14/2010 propofal a non-opiod short acting hypnotic and sedative used to induce anesthesia
9/15/2010 anesthetic adjuvant agents administered with anesthetics to improve effectiveness and delivery, or decrease dosage   
9/16/2010 sedative has a soothing, calming, or tranquilizing effect, used as an adjuvant to anesthetics
9/17/2010 hypnotic an agent that induces sleep
9/18/2010 Acepromazine phenothiazine derivative psychotropic drug used in animals as a chemical restraint and adjuvant   
9/21/2010 Xylazine an analgesic and sedative for immobilization, used in combination as an anesthetic adjuvant 
9/22/2010 local anesthesia anesthesia confined to one part of the body without loss of consciousness
9/23/2010 infiltration anesthesia local anesthesia produced by injection of agent into tissues and acting on nerve endings
9/24/2010 epidural anesthesia anesthetic injected into the epidural space surrounding the spine, numbs abdomen and legs   
9/25/2010 topical anesthesia anesthetic agent applied to skin or mucus membrane to numb the surface
9/28/2010 dissociative anesthesia form of general anesthesia characterized by catalepsy, catatonia, and amnesia
9/29/2010 anesthetic depth the degree of central nervous system depression produced by a general anesthetic agent 
9/30/2010 anesthetic overdose excessive use of a drug resulting in adverse reactions ranging from coma to death

October 2010      "Parasites we know"  

Date Word Definition
10/1/2010 parasite an organism which obtains food and shelter from another organism
10/4/2010 helminth worms, in particular the five groups of parasitic worms
10/5/2010 cestode tapeworms, ribbon-shaped segmented worms which inhabit the intestinal tract of many vertebrates
10/6/2010 nematode a class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry (roundworms)
10/7/2010 whipworm a parasitic nematode found in the intestine
10/8/2010 roundworm a nematode with a pulmonary phase of larval migration followed by an intestinal phase
10/11/2010 hookworm nematode parasites that attaches to intestinal villi to feed by sucking blood
10/12/2010 Strongylus a genus of intestinal parasitic nematodes occurring in animals and man
10/13/2010 Nippostrongylus a nematode genus of the superfamily heligmosomatoidea, occurs in rats
10/14/2010 acanthocephala a group of intestinal worms, having the proboscis armed with recurved spines (spiney-headed worms)
10/15/2010 trematode have flattened bodies covered with a chitinous skin, and are furnished with two or more suckers for adhesion (flukes)
10/18/2010 schistosoma genus of trematodes, snails are the intermediate hosts
10/19/2010 fluke the common name for trematodes
10/20/2010 protozoa a diverse group comprising some 50,000 eukaryotic organisms that consist of one cell
10/21/2010 coccodia a protozoan found in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract, liver and other organs
10/22/2010 giardia flagellate protozoan parasites, free swimming that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates
10/25/2010 Plasmodium a protozoan parasite in blood transmitted by the mosquito causing malaria
10/26/2010 Malaria infection by protozoan, Plasmodium, causing fever, transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito
10/27/2010 filaria a genus of slender, nematode worms of many species, parasitic in various animals
10/28/2010 Brugia a filarial worm of southeast asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in  mammals including man
10/29/2010 heartworm a species of filarial worm, microfilaria immitis, that matures in the pumonary vessels of dogs, transmitted by mosquito      

November 2010      "That's Cold"    

Date Word Definition
11/1/2010 cryogen a chemical that induces freezing
11/2/2010 cryogenics relating to or producing low temperatures
11/3/2010 cryopathy any of various diseased conditions caused by exposure to cold
11/4/2010 cryopreservation reversible freezing of tissues and cells to preserve for later use
11/5/2010 cryoprotectorant a substance, such as glycerol, used to protect cells or tissues from damage during freezing
11/8/2010 cryobank a place of storage that uses very low temperatures to preserve sperm/ova or transplantable tissues
11/9/2010 cryophilia an organism's preference for low temperatures
11/10/2010 cryotolerant able to withstand very low temperatures
11/11/2010 cryophylactic resistant to very low temperatures; said of bacteriaresistant to very low temperatures; said of bacteria
11/12/2010 cryolysis cell or organism destruction by cold
11/15/2010 cryotherapy  the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy
11/16/2010 cryosurgery exposure of tissues to extreme cold by applying liquid nitrogen to destroy abnormal cells
11/17/2010 cryoprobe a surgical instrument used to apply extreme cold to tissues during cryosurgery
11/18/2010 cryospray the use of a liquid nitrogen spray in cryosurgery
11/19/2010 cryocautery an instrument for destroying tissue by freezing it
11/22/2010 cryoanalgesia the relief of pain by application of cold by cryoprobe to peripheral nerves
11/23/2010 cryoanesthesia insensibility resulting from cold
11/24/2010 cryostat a thermostat that operates at very low temperatures or an apparatus used to maintain constant low temperature
11/29/2010 cryotome rotary microtome in a frozen section environment
11/30/2010 cryoprotein a blood protein that precipitates on cooling

December 2010    "Turn Around"      

Date Word Definition
12/1/2010 sursumversion act of turning or directing upward esp. of the eyes
12/2/2010 circling the act of turning in a circle, sign indicating a disease state
12/3/2010 circumduction circular movement of a limb or eye
12/6/2010 circumocular surrounding or occurring around the eye
12/7/2010 circulation movement in a circular course, especially in describing blood flow in the body
12/8/2010 cingulum an encircling structure or part
12/9/2010 circumnuclear occurring around or surrounding the nucleus
12/10/2010 circumvallate surrounded by a ridge or trench
12/13/2010 sursumduction turning upward of a part
12/14/2010 turning the obstetrical term for alteration of the presentation of the fetus during dystocia
12/15/2010 entropion inversion or turning inward of the border of eyelid toward the eye
12/16/2010 panzootic disease occurring around the world affecting animals
12/17/2010 pandemic disease occurring around the world affecting people
12/20/2010 sphincter a ring like muscle that surrounds and closes a natural body opening
12/21/2010 pursestring a continuous circular inverting suture used to close a circular opening
12/22/2010 orbit a circular bony cavity surrounding and protecting the eyeball
12/23/2010 rotation turning around an axis

January 2011       "Back to Basics"      

Date Word Definition
1/3/2011 alopecia lacking hair where it normally grows
1/4/2011 anorexia decreased appetite and food ingestion
1/5/2011 lethargy  a condition of drowsiness or indifference to stimuli
1/6/2011 mass lump or aggregate of coherent material
1/7/2011 lesion localized pathological change in a bodily organ or tissue
1/10/2011 dehydration condition caused by the excessive loss of water from the body
1/11/2011 excoriation process of removing the skin or outer layer by mechanical means such as scratching
1/12/2011 dystocia abnormal, slow, or difficult birth, usually because of disordered/ineffective uterine contractions
1/13/2011 kyphosis abnormal rearward curvature of the spine, resulting in protuberance of the upper back 
1/14/2011 dermatitis inflammation of the skin
1/17/2011 dyspnea pain or difficulty in breathing
1/18/2011 diarrhea excessive and frequent evacuation of watery feces
1/19/2011 paralysis loss or impairment of the ability to move a body part
1/20/2011 hypothermia abnormally low body temperature
1/21/2011 tremors an involuntary shaking or vibrating movement of the limbs
1/24/2011 vomiting to eject part or all of the contents of the stomach through the mouth in involuntary spasmic movements
1/25/2011 polydipsia excessive or abnormal thirst
1/26/2011 polyuria passing of an abornomally large amount of urine frequently
1/27/2011 erythema redness of the skin caused by dilatation and congestion of the capillaries, a sign of inflammation/infection
1/28/2011 malocclusion misalignment between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is closed
1/31/2011 paraphimosis inability to retract the penis into the prepuce

February 2011    "The Anatomy of Rodent Sex"

Date Word Definition
2/1/2011 ovary  the female gonad: either of the paired female sexual glands in which oocytes are formed
2/2/2011 fallopian tube slender tube from uterus to ovary, for passage of oocytes to the uterus; the usual site of fertilization
2/3/2011 uterus hollow muscular organ in female mammals where blastocysts become embedded and where developing embryo/fetus is nourished
2/4/2011 vagina the genital canal in the female, leading from the opening of the vulva to the cervix of the uterus
2/7/2011 vulva external genital organs of the female
2/8/2011 scrotum external pouch containing the male reproductive glands (testes) and part of the spermatic cord
2/9/2011 testis male gonad, the source of spermatozoa and testosterone, normally occurring paired in an external scrotum
2/10/2011 epididymis a convoluted tube in the back of the testes that holds sperm for maturation and transportation
2/11/2011 vas deferns extension of the epididymis of the testis that ascends from the scrotum into the abdominal cavity
2/14/2011 penis the male organ of urination and copulation
2/15/2011 seminal vesicle paired glandular structures that secrete fluid to nourish and promote the movement of spermatozoa
2/16/2011 prostate gland gland in males below the bladder that surrounds the urethra and secretes a liquid to lubricate and protect from infection
2/17/2011 coagulating gland lobes of the prostate that secrete an enzyme that when combined with seminal fluid produce copulatory plugs
2/18/2011 Cowper's gland produces a clear, viscous secretion to lubricate the urethra for spermatozoa to pass through
2/21/2011 bulbourethral gland a exocrine gland also called Cowper's gland
2/22/2011 preputial gland paired exocrine glands that are located in front of the genitals of some male mammals and produce pheromones
2/23/2011 clitoral gland the female equivalent to the preputial gland in males
2/24/2011 copulation the union of the sex organs of two sexually reproducing animals for insemination and subsequent internal fertilization
2/25/2011 conception fusion of gametes to form a new organism of the same species
2/28/2011 gestation begins when a fertilized zygote implants in the female's uterus; and ends once it leaves the uterus

March 2011      "Diet Time"      

Date Word Definition
3/1/2011 high fiber diet a diet that has high amount of fiber, used for maintaining intestinal health in rabbits
3/2/2011 low sodium diet a diet with reduced amounts of sodium for animals with heart disease
3/3/2011 BARF diet Bones And Raw Foods to mimic the diet of wild dogs, no scientific basis for feeding
3/4/2011 weight control diet a diet with reduced calorie content with an elevated fiber content
3/7/2011 bland diet a diet used to treat diarrhea, has easily digested ingredients and no fat
3/8/2011 lactation diet a diet higher in calories, calcium, and protein to support a nursing female
3/9/2011 allergy control diet a diet made from hypoallergenic foods ie, rice, potatoes, novel animal proteins
3/10/2011 organic diet a diet compounded from organically grown foods, without pesticides
3/11/2011 diabetic diet a diet without added sugars and high in fiber
3/14/2011 dental diet an extruded diet that has an abrasive effect on the teeth to aid in preventing dental calculi
3/15/2011 soft diet a canned or moist diet that is easy to chew, used for animals with dental disease
3/16/2011 performance diet a diet high in calories for working animals
3/17/2011 low calcium diet a feed that is reduced in calcium for rabbits to prevent build up of calcium in soft tissues
3/18/2011 maintenance diet a diet that is balanced for maintaining the weight and supplying energy needs of adult animals
3/21/2011 senior diet a diet that contains fewer calories but the same level of protein as maintenance diets
3/22/2011 growth diet a diet high in protein and calories to sustain growth of bones and muscle in the young animal
3/23/2011 prebiotic diet a diet formulated to contain the nutrients needed by beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract
3/24/2011 arthritis diet a diet formulated to reduce weight and contains chondritin and glucosamine for joint health
3/25/2011 canned/wet diet a diet with a high moisture content causing the food to be wet, has a high calorie content
3/28/2011 extruded diet a process of manufacture where the diet is forced with air at a high temp through ports and is fluffed and hardened
3/29/2011 pelleted diet a process of manufacture where the diet is compressed and dried creating hard pellets of food - many shapes
3/30/2011 powdered diet a feed that is in powdered form to aid the incorporation of additives or pharmaceuticals
3/31/2011 chow diets a cereal based diet often used as a control diet and as the basis for other diet formulations

April 2011        "For or Against"

Date Word Definition
4/1/2011 animal rights rights to humane treatment claimed on behalf of animals, especially the right not to be exploited for human purposes
4/4/2011 animal welfare avoidance of abuse/exploitation of animals by maintaining appropriate standards of care, health, and unnecessary discomfort and pain
4/5/2011 speciesism discrimination against or exploitation of animals based on the assumption that humans are superior
4/6/2011 animal use the equivalent to occupation in humans, the purpose the animal is kept or bred to perform
4/7/2011 animal liberation the movement to free animals from human slavery, to abolish pet ownweship, use of animals for food, transportation, entertainment, and assistance
4/8/2011 IACUC Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, charged with overseeing the use of animals at research institutions
4/11/2011 ARM Animal Rights Movement
4/12/2011 ALF Animal Liberation Front, a group that believes acts of violence are justified to push their agenda forward in society
4/13/2011 PETA People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, the largest animal rights group headed by Ingrid Newkirk
4/14/2011 SHAC Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty, a group that has used violence against an independent testing facility that uses mainly dogs
4/15/2011 PCRM Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, advocates a vegan lifestyle and is against animal based research, financially supported by PETA
4/18/2011 AETA Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act, a federal law that gives the justice dept stronger tools to prosecute domestic terrorism by the ARM
4/19/2011 veganarchism political philosophy of veganism/animal liberation and anarchism, that is a means for social revolution (viewing government as harmful to animals)
4/20/2011 ASPCA American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, dedicated to preventing cruelty to animals, research for the benefit of animal health
4/21/2011 AWI Animal Welfare Institute, promotes welfare of animals by legislation and nonviolent measures
4/22/2011 Defenders of Wildlife mission is preservation/conservation of animals/plants, preservation of biodiversity/habitats, advocate for protection of endangered/threatened species
4/25/2011 AMP Americans for Medical Progress, nurtures public understanding/support for the humane, necessary and valuable use of animals in medicine
4/26/2011 Pro-Test believes that ethical/humane animal research is vital for advances in medicine, condemns violence against researchers/life science professionals
4/27/2011 SCAW Scientists Center for Animal Welfare-research professionals dedicated to balancing animal welfare&excellence in basic and applied scientific inquiry
4/28/2011 AWA Animal Welfare Act, passed in 1966 and administered by the USDA APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service)

May 2011   "Common Clinical Signs"      

Date Word Definition
5/2/2011 ataxia failure of muscular coordination
5/3/2011 anuria lack of urine production
5/4/2011 bradycardia excessively slow heart rate
5/5/2011 convulsion an involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the voluntary muscles
5/6/2011 cyanosis bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood
5/9/2011 dysphagia difficult or painful swallowing
5/10/2011 fever a condition of abnormally high body temperature
5/11/2011 hematuria blood in the urine
5/12/2011 hyperthermia abnormally increased body temperature
5/13/2011 hyperventilation abnormally increased pulmonary ventilation
5/16/2011 jaundice a yellow discoloration of the skin from deposition of bile pigments
5/17/2011 lacrimation secretion of tears
5/18/2011 miosis contraction of the pupil
5/19/2011 nystagmus involuntary, rhythmic, oscillating motions of the eyes
5/20/2011 obtundation a condition close to but not yet comatose, arousing only with very strong stimulus
5/23/2011 rhinorrhea excessive discharge from the nasal mucous membrane
5/24/2011 salivation excessive discharge from the nasal mucous membrane
5/25/2011 stomatitis inflammation of the oral mucosa
5/26/2011 tachypnea abnormally rapid respirations
5/27/2011 torticollis movement disorder in which the muscles controlling the neck cause sustained twisting
5/31/2011 syncope temporary loss of consciousness due to generalized cerebral ischemia, a faint

June 2011     "Talk My Language"

Date Word Definition
6/1/2011 ad libitum without restraint, food available at all times consumption being the free choice of the animal
6/2/2011 alkaline having a pH greater than 7.0
6/3/2011 acidic having a pH less than 7.0
6/6/2011 autoclave device for effecting sterilization by steam under pressure; to treat in an autoclave
6/7/2011 barbering hair loss as a result of having another rodent chew on their fur, linked to dominance behavior
6/8/2011 biohazard substance derived from an organism that poses a threat to (primarily) human health
6/9/2011 cannibalism an animal that feeds on others of its own kind, generally seen with stillborn pups and carcasses
6/10/2011 carcass term for a dead body, typically that of an animal
6/13/2011 census a counting of the animal population within a room or on a protocol
6/14/2011 cutaneous pertaning to or of the skin
6/15/2011 disinfection the process of applying antimicrobial agents to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms
6/16/2011 euthanasia ending  life of an animal in a painless or minimally painful way
6/17/2011 fomite object capable of carrying and transferring infectious organisms from one individual to another
6/20/2011 geriatric relating to the aged or to characteristics of the aging process
6/21/2011 gown garment worn in operating rooms as a guard against contamination, to put on one of these garments
6/22/2011 hygiene conditions and practices that serve to promote or preserve health
6/23/2011 infectious causing or transmitting infection by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or protozoa
6/24/2011 inhalation act of taking in breath, also a medication to be taken by inhaling it
6/27/2011 necropsy term for a post-mortem examination performed on an animal
6/28/2011 neonate a new born animal
6/29/2011 nocturnal an animal behavior describing sleeping during the daytime and being active at night
6/30/2011 quarantine compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of disease

July 2011      "What did you say?"

Date Word Definition
7/1/2011 regurgitation controlled flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus and mouth, normal in ruminants
7/5/2011 restraint  to hold back or control, in animals to hamper movement to allow for medical/husbandry procedures
7/6/2011 sanitation the reduction of pathogenic organisms on an object to an acceptable public health standard
7/7/2011 disinfection the reduction of numbers of pathogenic organisms on an object to a harmless number
7/8/2011 sterilization destruction of all organisms on an object
7/11/2011 sentinel an animal deliberately placed in a particular environment to detect the presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus
7/12/2011 SOP Standard Operating Procedure, a written guide to allow standardation of tasks regardless of worker
7/13/2011 strain a distinct type of animal within species, usually expressing specific traits or differences
7/14/2011 stereotypy constant repetition of meaningless or sometimes harmful movements
7/15/2011 temp tape tempreature sensitive tape for monitoring rack/bottle washer effectiveness and for quality control
7/18/2011 transmissible capable of being passed from animal to animal, contagious
7/19/2011 USDA United States Department of Agriculture
7/20/2011 ventilation the process of exchange of air between the lungs and the ambient air
7/21/2011 ventral denoting a position on the belly surface
7/22/2011 vermin various small animals or insects that are pests, wild rodents as opposed to laboratory reared animals
7/25/2011 virus submicroscopic entities made of a DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat; capable of replication only within living cells
7/26/2011 virulence the degree that a infective agent can produce disease based on fatality rates/ability to invade tissues
7/27/2011 wean to discontinue nursing and begin eating other foods
7/28/2011 weanling an animal newly changed from nursing to other forms of nurishment
7/29/2011 xenograph tissue transplantation between animals of different species
7/30/2011 zoonosis an animal disease transmissible to humans

August 2011     "Swim said the mama fish, swim if you can!"

Date Word Definition
8/1/2011 zebrafish (Danio rerio) a popular aquarium tropical freshwater fish used in research
8/2/2011 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) an easily caught fish in the great lakes can reach 10"
8/3/2011 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) Great Lakes deep water predator, commercially important, decreasing numbers due to lamprey
8/4/2011 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) the WI state fish, noted for its size, most sought after trophy fish in the Great Lakes
8/5/2011 lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) a popular sport fish and the most important of the commercial fish species
8/8/2011 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) a popular sport fish noted for its good flavor and texture
8/9/2011 pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) a common fish in the Great Lakes aka bluegill, considered a good pan fish
8/10/2011 walleye (Salvelinus namaycush) a popular sport fish and the second most important commercial fish
8/11/2011 salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) intentionally introduced to Great Lakes as a sport fish
8/12/2011 ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) a type of perch, normal range France to Siberia, has invaded the Great Lakes
8/15/2011 round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) native to eurasia, now found in all the GreatLakes, only one inland lake - in IN
8/16/2011 red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) an invasive species of minnow
8/17/2011 alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) a herring species invasive to the Great Lakes and Ohio river
8/18/2011 big head carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) a carp from China, record 85# fish - found in all major waterways is 40 miles from Great Lakes
8/19/2011 black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) is a carp from China that is a voracious feeder on clams and mussels not yet in IN
8/22/2011 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) originating in asia the largest of the minnow family, has spread to most of the US
8/23/2011 grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) found in 45 states, originated in Russia and China, legal in IN if sterile, largest caught in IN - 65# 
8/24/2011 rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) found in euroasia, spread to many countries and in 21 states in US
8/25/2011 sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.) found normally along the Atlantic coast but have invaded the Great Lakes
8/26/2011 silver carp (Hypophthalmic molitrix) a eurasian carp, has invaded the Mississippi and adjacent waterways, noted for leaping into the air
8/29/2011 snakeheads (Channidae sp.) 28 different species originating in Malaysia, Asia, Indonesia, and Africa, none in IN yet
8/30/2011 walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) originally from SE Asia/E. India, noted for the ability to "walk" on land from one body of water to another
8/31/2011 white perch (Morone americana) one of the temperate basses normal range is east coast US but has spread west to Great Lake

September 2011      "What are they looking at?"    

Date Word Definition
9/1/2011 obesity condition that is characterized by excessive accumulation and storage of fat in the body
9/2/2011 diabetes condition where inadequate secretion or utilization of insulin causes excessive urine production, sugar in the blood and urine
9/6/2011 Niemann-Pick error in lipid metabolism, inherited recessive trait, accumulation of phospholipid in macrophages in organs resulting in neurologic/physical deterioration
9/7/2011 malaria disease caused by Plasmodium parasites in red blood cells, transmitted of anopheline mosquitoes, causing fever, chills, anemia, death
9/8/2011 leishmania infection caused by protozoans of the family Trypanosomatidae, parasitic in the tissues of vertebrates, are transmitted by sand flies
9/9/2011 cancer a malignant tumor of potentially unlimited growth that expands locally by invasion and systemically by metastasis
9/12/2011 sepsis systemic inflammatory response syndrome induced by a documented infection
9/13/2011 inflammation local injury response marked by capillary dilatation, WBC infiltration, pain, swelling, is a means of removing noxious agents and damaged tissue
9/14/2011 hemophilia hereditary blood defect characterized by delayed clotting of the blood and consequent difficulty in controlling hemorrhage
9/15/2011 immunity condition of resisting disease through preventing development of a pathogenic microorganism or by counteracting the effects of its products
9/16/2011 imaging process of producing an image especially of a part of the body by radiographic techniques
9/19/2011 retinopathy various noninflammatory disorders of the retina including some that cause blindness
9/20/2011 mycoplasmosis infection with Mycoplasma, a gram-negative chiefly nonmotile bacteria that are mostly parasitic in mammals
9/21/2011 tuberculosis chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is communicated by inhalation of airborne causative agent, affects especially the lungs
9/22/2011 circadian rhythm biological activity or function occurring in ~24-hour cycles
9/23/2011 asthma chronic lung disorder that is marked by recurring episodes of airway obstruction triggered by hyperreactivity to various stimuli
9/26/2011 artherosclerosis characterized by fatty deposits in and fibrosis of the inner layer of the arteries
9/27/2011 eclampsia a convulsive state or coma often seen late in pregnancy in animals with preeclampsia (low calcium levels)
9/28/2011 vaccine a preparation of killed, living attenuated, or living fully virulent organisms that is administered to produce/increase immunity to a particular disease
9/29/2011 rejection an immune response in which foreign tissue is attacked by immune system components of the recipient organism

October 2011      "You're So Sweet!"

Date Word Definition
10/3/2011 glycemia presence of sugar in the blood
10/4/2011 hyperglycemia presence of abnormal amounts of sugar in the blood
10/5/2011 glycogeusia a condition where there is a sweet taste in the mouth
10/6/2011 diabetes mellitus a metabolic disease of inability to oxidize carbohydrates, loss of insulin production
10/7/2011 glycosuria presence of abnormal amounts of sugar in the urine
10/10/2011 glycotaxis the metabolic distribution of glucose to the body tissues
10/11/2011 glycohistechia presence of abnormally large amounts of sugar in the tissues
10/12/2011 glycolysis the breaking down of sugars into simpler compounds
10/13/2011 sucrose a sugar derived from sugar cane & beets, used as food and sweetener
10/14/2011 fructose occurs in honey and fruits derived from separation of sucrose into fructose & glucose
10/17/2011 glucose the principle energy source of living organisms, from the incomplete hydrolysis of starch
10/18/2011 dextrose a sugar from the hydolysis of starch yeilding sucrose and dextrose
10/19/2011 glycogen the chief carbohydrate storage material in animals
10/20/2011 carbohydrate a class of nutrients that include sugars, starches, celluloses and gums
10/21/2011 starch a plant carbohydrate that is broken down in the body as sugar for energy
10/24/2011 sugar a sweet carbohydrate of animal or plant origin
10/25/2011 lactose sugar from milk, when broken down yeilds glucose and galactose
10/26/2011 galactose a byproduct of lactose metabolism, similar to glucose but less soluable
10/27/2011 maltose a sugar formed when starch is hydrolysed by the digestive enzyme amylase
10/28/2011 blood sugar  the free glucose in the blood
10/31/2011 cellulose a carbohydrate composing the plant skeleton, generally insoluable

November 2011  "Imagine That!"

Date Word Definition
11/1/2011 image a representation of an object produced by means of radiation usually with a lens or mirror system
11/2/2011 imaging radiological production of a picture using x-rays, ultrasound, CT, MRI, radionuclide scanning, thermography, etc.
11/3/2011 x-ray high-energy photon having a wavelength in the approximate range from 0.01 to 10 nanometers
11/4/2011 radiograph an image produced on a radiosensitive surface, such as a photographic film, by radiation other than visible light, especially by x-rays passed through an object
11/7/2011 CT (CAT) computed tomography, techniques for making detailed x-rays of a predetermined plane section of a solid object while blurring out the images of other planes
11/8/2011 MRI magnetic resonance image,  non-invasive method using nuclear magnetic resonance to render images of the inside of an object, especially soft tissues
11/9/2011 fluoroscopy x-ray imaging technique used to evaluate moving pulmonary and cardiac structures
11/10/2011 radioparent allowing the passage of x-rays resulting in black areas on a film
11/11/2011 radiolucent permitting the passage of x-rays but offering some resistance resulting in darker areas on a film
11/14/2011 radiopaque not permitting the passage of x-rays resulting in white areas on a film
11/15/2011 contrast agent a substance injected into the body that illuminates certain structures that would otherwise be hard to see on the radiograph
11/16/2011 radionuclide scan diagnostic test in which a radioactive dye is injected into the bloodstream and photographed to display internal vessels, organs and tissues
11/17/2011 PET positron emission tomography, images made by computer analysis of photons from annihilation of positrons emitted by radionuclides in biochemical substances
11/18/2011 chemoluminescence produced by the direct transformation of chemical energy to light energy
11/21/2011 bioluminescence chemoluminescence occurring in living cells
11/22/2011 luminescence the emission of light by a material after excitation by some stimulus, does not derive energy from the temperature of the emitting body
11/23/2011 fluorescence emission of electromagnetic radiation, esp. visible light, stimulated in a substance by the absorption of radiation, persisting as long as stimulating radiation continues
11/28/2011 fluorescent image pictures made by the emission of electromagnetic radiation captured by special film or equipment
11/29/2011 thermography infrared camera photographically portrays the body's surface temperature, based on self-emanating infrared radiation
11/30/2011 ultrasound ultrasonic waves for diagnostic purposes, specifically to image an internal body structure

December 2011   "The In Crowd"

Date Word Definition
12/1/2011 inbred 20 generations of brother x sister matings used to produce, accepts tissue graphs
12/2/2011 SHR albino, spontaneously hypertensive rat used for hypertension, ADHD model, safety/efficacy testing
12/5/2011 WKY albino Wistar inbred at Kyoto School of Medicine, used as a control for SHR and ADHD model
12/6/2011 Lewis albino rats, used induced arthritis/inflammation, allergic encephalitis, streptozotocin induced diabetes
12/7/2011 F344 Fischer albino rats, used for aging, surgical models, oncology, nutrition and safety/efficacy testing
12/8/2011 Dahl/SS albino rats that are salt sensitive (SS), used for studies on hypertension, diastolic heart failure, nephropathy
12/9/2011 PCK polycystic kidney disease model is an albino rat
12/12/2011 LOBUND-Wistar albino rats  that develop spontaneous prostate cancer
12/13/2011 Copenhagen brown hooded rat used for carcinogenesis research, prostatic adenocarcinoma model
12/14/2011 Buffalo albino rats used for carcinogenesis and oncology research
12/15/2011 C57BL/6 black mice used for transgenic/knock-out model development, obesity, immunology, safety/efficacy studies
12/16/2011 BALB/c albino mice from "Bagg albino" used for monoclonal antibody production, hybridomas, infectious disease
12/19/2011 C3H agouti mouse used for oncology, neurological disorders, retinal degeneration, safety/efficacy studies
12/20/2011 FVB albino mice used for transgenic/knock-out model development
12/21/2011 DBA/2 nonagouti , dilute brown mice, used for audiogenic seizures, immunology, safety/efficacy studies
12/22/2011 Pound black mouse lacks leptin receptor, used for obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia
12/23/2011 SKH-1 hairless mouse, immunocompetent

January 2012     "I Itch Therefore I Am"

Date Word Definition
1/2/2012 pruritis an irritation of sensory nerves in the skin that induces scratching
1/3/2012 itching unpleasant cutaneous sensation provoking the desire to rub or scratch the skin
1/4/2012 scratching to rub or scrape the skin with nails or claws to relieve itching
1/5/2012 excoriation abrading the skin to the extent the top dermal layers are removed causing bleeding
1/6/2012 lichenification thickening of the epidermis with a crisscross pattern, caused by excessive rubbing and scratching
1/9/2012 xerotes dryness, can be applied to the skin, eyes, mouth; dry skin is often pruritic
1/10/2012 urticaria  vascular reaction in skin producing smooth, sl. elevated red patches attended by severe itching
1/11/2012 wheals a sign of urticaria, transient smooth sl. elevated red or pale patches on the body surface
1/12/2012 hives another term for urticaria
1/13/2012 rash a temporary eruption on the skin as in urticaria, usually accompanied by itching
1/16/2012 dermatitis an inflammation of the skin
1/17/2012 conjunctivitis inflammation of the delicate membranes that line the eye
1/18/2012 allergy a hypersensitive state acquired through exposure to a specific allergen
1/19/2012 atopy a hypersensitive state, allergy, that can be hereditary
1/20/2012 hypersensitivity a state where the body reacts with an exaggerated response to a foreign agent
1/23/2012 anaphylaxis exaggerated allergic reaction to foreign protein, starts as itching progressing to airway obstruction, shock and possible death
1/24/2012 allergen a substance capable of inducing allergy or specific hypersensitivity
1/25/2012 mast cells a connective tissue cell that contains cytoplasmic granules having histamine, heparin, and in mice/rat seretonin
1/26/2012 histamine an organic compound in mast cells that dilates capillaries, constricts bronchial smooth muscle, increases gastric secretions
1/27/2012 antihistamine substance or drug that counteracts the effects of histamine
1/30/2012 IgE an immunoglobulin (protein) that attaches to tissue cells and induces the release of histamine
1/31/2012 dermatophyte a fungus parasitic on the skin, can cause intense itching and burning


February 2012
    "In the Mood"

Date Word Definition
2/1/2012 Bruce Effect a form of pregnancy disruption in mammals in which exposure of a female to an unknown male results in pre- or postimplantation failure
2/2/2012 Whitten Effect male mouse pheromone-laden urine synchronizes the estrus cycle among unisexually grouped females
2/3/2012 Vandenbergh Effect the early induction of first estrous in prepubertal female mice as a result of exposure to urine of a sexually mature male mouse
2/6/2012 Loos-Boot Effect the suppression or prolongation of estrous cycles of mature mice when females are housed in groups and isolated from males
2/7/2012 McClintock Effect analogous to the Whitten Effect, except female phermone driven for the synchronization of estrus cycles
2/8/2012 vomeronasal organ a tiny structure that senses pheromones located on the roof of the mouth in mice
2/9/2012 estrus the peroid of sexual receptivity that coincides with ovulation in the female
2/10/2012 ovulation the discharge of the ooocyte from the vessicular follicle of the ovary
2/13/2012 pair mating a mating scheme of one male with a single female
2/14/2012 harem mating a mating scheme of one male with multiple females
2/15/2012 pregnant condition of having a developing embryo in the body
2/16/2012 pseudocyesis a false pregnancy, where the body mimics changes that occur with pregnancy
2/17/2012 gestation the time between conception and birth when the embryo develops
2/20/2012 parturition the act of giving birth
2/21/2012 primapara bearing young for the first time
2/22/2012 multipara having experienced one or more previous parturitions
2/23/2012 coparenting a system where a primaparous female is placed with a multiparous female to birth and rear the litters together
2/24/2012 foster to nourish and provide care as a surrogate parent, especially a mother
2/27/2012 altricial birth or hatching in helpless condition, requiring parental care
2/28/2012 precocial birth or hatching  requiring little or no parental care
2/29/2012 wean when young are no longer dependant on the mother for milk


March 2012
     "It's a Glandular Condition"

Date Word Definition
3/1/2012 gland a group of cells that excrete or secrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs
3/2/2012 endocrine gland organs that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream that influence metabolism and other processes
3/5/2012 adrenal gland tissue at the cranial pole of each kidney, produces steroid hormones and epinephrine & norepinephrine
3/6/2012 pituitary gland located at the base of the brain, regulates functioning of other endocrine glands in the body
3/7/2012 thyroid gland endocrine gland that secrets thyroxine and triiodothyroxine which regulate metabolic rate
3/8/2012 parathyroid gland located near the thyroid gland, secrete parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium & phosphorus metabolism
3/9/2012 pineal gland small coneshaped body in epithalamus of the brain, the source of melatonin synthesis in animals
3/12/2012 lymph gland nodes of lymphoid tissue through out the body, the main source of lymphocytes
3/13/2012 exocrine gland a gland that discharges its secretion through a duct opening on the internal or external surface of an organ
3/14/2012 harderian gland accessory lacrimal glands in the medial canthus of the eye, secret a fluid to lubricate the third eyelid in animals
3/15/2012 meibomian gland sebaceous follicles between the tarsi and conjunctiva of the eyelid
3/16/2012 uropygial gland found at the base of the tail in birds, secretes an oil that waterproofs feathers, spread during preening
3/19/2012 salivary gland oral cavity glands (3 major pairs) whose secretion make saliva, moistens food and the mouth
3/20/2012 prostate gland gland that surrounds the neck of the urethra in the male, contributes to the seminal fluid
3/21/2012 anal gland sebaceous glands at the anus that secrete a oily odiferous material on the surface of feces
3/22/2012 lacrimal gland found at the outer corners of the orbit of the eye, secrete tears for lubrication of the eye
3/23/2012 mammary gland a specialized epithelial gland of mammals that secretes milk for nutrition of newborns
3/26/2012 mucous gland a gland that secretes a slimy, chemically inert material
3/27/2012 serous gland a gland that secretes a watery albuminous material commonly containing enzymes
3/28/2012 compound gland a gland made of smaller units whose ducts combine to form ducts of progressively higher order
3/29/2012 eccrine gland one of the ordinary or simple sweat glands of the body
3/30/2012 excretory gland any gland that excretes waste products from the system


April 2012
     "What is that drug used for?"

Date Word Definition
4/2/2012 Gentamicin an antibiotic effective against some gram-negative bacteria
4/3/2012 Baytril a fluoroquinolone antibiotic effective against a wide spectrum of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
4/4/2012 Dexamethasone an adrenalcortical steroid used as an anti inflammatory
4/5/2012 Polymyxin B an antibiotic effective against most gram-negative bacteria (except Proteus sp.)
4/6/2012 Solu Medrol a potent anti-inflammatory steroid that is very soluable in water and can be given IV
4/9/2012 Clavamox an antibiotic with activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms
4/10/2012 Amoxicillin a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-lactam antibiotic in the penicillin class
4/11/2012 Metronidazole a trichomonacide given orally
4/12/2012 Ivermectin broad-spectrum antiparasitic medication that kills by interfering with nervous system and muscle function
4/13/2012 Fendbendazole a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic used against gastrointestinal parasites
4/16/2012 Yohimbine an alkaloid stimulant used to reverse anesthesia from the drug xylazine in small and large animals
4/17/2012 Xylazine an alpha2-agonist with sedative and analgesic properties
4/18/2012 Proparacaine a topical anesthetic often used in ophthalmic procedures
4/19/2012 Atropine an anticholinergic alkaloid from the Belladonna plant blocks impulses through parasympathetic nerves
4/20/2012 Isoflurane a halogenated ether used for inhalation anesthesia
4/23/2012 Butorphanol an opiod analgesic having partial agonist & antagonist activity at the μ opioid receptor & agonist activity at the κ opioid receptor
4/24/2012 Oxytocin a hypothalmic hormone stored in the posterior pituitary stimulating uterine contractions and milk let down
4/25/2012 Butenafine a topical synthetic benzylamine antifungal
4/26/2012 Primaquine an antimalarial, being gametocidal against all forms of malaria
4/27/2012 Doxycycline a broad spectrum antibiotic active against gram-positive and gram negative organisms
4/30/2012 Lidocaine an anesthetic used for topical and local anesthesia for short surgical procedures

May 2012        "The Shape of Things"        

Date Word Definition
5/1/2012 falcate sickle shaped
5/2/2012 amoeboid amoeba shaped cell
5/3/2012 annular ring shaped
5/4/2012 campanulate bell shaped
5/7/2012 coccoid rounded ball shaped
5/8/2012 convex hollow and rounded inward like a bowl
5/9/2012 concave hollow and rounded like the exterior of a sphere
5/10/2012 crenulate gently wavy
5/11/2012 cruciform cross shaped having 4 arms
5/14/2012 cuneate wedge shaped
5/15/2012 dendroid branching in a tree like fashion
5/16/2012 fusiform tapering at both ends
5/17/2012 imbricate overlapping like shingles on a roof
5/18/2012 lanceolate lance shaped
5/21/2012 lenticulate double concave shape like a lentil
5/22/2012 punctate having pores
5/23/2012 bacilate rod shaped
5/24/2012 scalariform ladder shaped
5/25/2012 spheroid rounded ball shaped
5/28/2012 sigmoid curved like the Greek letter Sigma, curved in two directions
5/29/2012 torulose with small swellings, beaded
5/30/2012 xiphoid sword shaped

June 2012     "Take a deep breath"    

Date Word Definition
6/1/2012 nares openings in the nose for passage of air in and out
6/4/2012 nasal sinus mucosa- lined air cavities in the crainal bones which communicates with the nasal cavity
6/5/2012 turbinates small bones shaped like a toy top located in the sinuses
6/6/2012 epistaxis nose bleed
6/7/2012 pharynx the musculomembranous sac between the mouth, nares and esophagus
6/8/2012 larynx a structure situated above the trachea and below the tongue - the essential sphincter guarding the entrance to the trachea, secondarily the organ of voice
6/11/2012 epiglottis a lid like cartileginous structure overhanging the larynx that prevents food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing
6/12/2012 trachea a tube made of cartilaginous rings leading from the larynx and branching to form the bronchi
6/13/2012 bronchus pl. bronchi, any of the larger air passages of the lungs
6/14/2012 bronchiole a finer branch of the bronchial tree less than 1mm in diameter
6/15/2012 lung the organ of respiration, paired organs that effect the aeration of the blood
6/18/2012 alveolus pl. alveoli small outpouching of the walls of the alveolar sacs, ducts and bronchioles through which gas exchange takes place
6/19/2012 atelectasis a condition of collapse of a lung
6/20/2012 diaphragm the muscle separating the thoracic and the abdominal cavities
6/21/2012 inspiration the act of drawing air into the lungs
6/22/2012 expiration the act of expelling air from the lungs
6/25/2012 ausculation listening to the sounds of the body esp. heart and lungs
6/26/2012 sternutation the act of sneezing
6/27/2012 dyspnea difficult breathing
6/28/2012 cyanosis a blue tint to the skin/mucus membranes due to deficient oxygenation of the blood
6/29/2012 respiration the exchange of oxygen and CO2 between the atmosphere and the cells of the body

July 2012     "Feel Free to Use These Words"

Date Word Definition
7/2/2012 frenulum a small fold of skin/mucous membrane that checks, curbs or limits movement of an organ or part
7/3/2012 adhesion a fibrous band or stricture by which parts abnormally adhere
7/5/2012 palpation the act of feeling with the hand
7/6/2012 lesion any pathological or traumatic discontinuity of tissue 
7/9/2012 mass a lump or body made up of cohering particles
7/10/2012 conjunctivitis inflammation of the delicate membranes that line the eye
7/11/2012 ataxia motor incoordination
7/12/2012 excoriation superficial loss of skin such as that caused by excessive scratching
7/13/2012 fremitus a vibration perceptible on palpation
7/16/2012 dyspnea difficulty breathing
7/17/2012 anorexia lack or loss of appetite for food
7/18/2012 dystocia difficult labor or birth
7/19/2012 alopecia absence of hair from areas where it is normally present
7/20/2012 cyanosis a blue tint to the skin/mucus membranes due to deficient oxygenation of the blood
7/23/2012 pruritis itching
7/24/2012 hyperesthesia abnormal increased sensitivity of the skin
7/25/2012 dermatitis inflammation of the skin
7/26/2012 symptom any subjective evidence of disease that only the patient perceives
7/27/2012 sign any objective evidence of disease
7/30/2012 diagnosis determining the nature or cause of a disease
7/31/2012 acute of short duration or rapid onset

August 2012    "I want to be sedated"

Date Word Definition
8/1/2012 esthesia the ability to feel or perceive
8/2/2012 anesthetic an agent that reversibly depresses neuronal function, producing total or partial loss of sensation
8/3/2012 anesthesia loss of the ability to feel pain, caused by administration of a drug or other medical intervention
8/6/2012 catatonia a stuporous mental state with a rigidity of muscles, generally non-responsive to external stimuli
8/7/2012 ketamine a rapid-acting general anesthetic that produces catatonia but not muscle relaxation
8/8/2012 coma a state of extreme unresponsiveness often responses to pain are absent
8/9/2012 unconscious incapable of responding to sensory stimuli and of having subjective experiences
8/10/2012 analgia without pain
8/13/2012 analgesic an agent that relieves pain without loss of consciousness
8/14/2012 audioanalgesia reduction of pain by listinging to music or white noise through a stereophonic head set
8/15/2012 NSAID a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, an analgesic such as ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, or aspirin
8/16/2012 ketoprofen an NSAID used for post operative analgesia at FLSC
8/17/2012 narcotic pertaining to a substance that produces insensibility or stupor, is addictive
8/20/2012 opiate any of various sedative narcotics that contain opium or one or more of its natural or synthetic derivatives
8/21/2012 opioid any morphine-like synthetic narcotic that produces the same effects as drugs derived from the opium poppy
8/22/2012 butorphanol an (synthetic) opioid used as the tartrate salt as an analgesic and anesthesia adjunct
8/23/2012 hypnotic an agent that induces sleep
8/24/2012 depressant any agent that reduces functional activity by producing muscular relaxation
8/27/2012 sedative a drug used to allay irritability and excitement
8/28/2012 barbiturate medicines that act on the central nervous system and cause drowsiness
8/29/2012 tranquilizer any of various drugs used to reduce tension or anxiety; an antianxiety agent
8/30/2012 anxiolytic a drug that relieves anxiety
8/31/2012 antianxiety medication that dispels anxiety

September 2012   "Come Together, Right Now…"   

Date Word Definition
9/4/2012 mix to form by combining ingredients
9/5/2012 fuse to become mixed or united by or as if by melting together
9/6/2012 fusion  the merging or coherence of adjacent parts or bodies
9/7/2012 compound made up of two or more parts or ingredients
9/10/2012 spinal fusion correction of an unstable part of the spine by joining two or more vertebrae
9/11/2012 chimera an organism with different cell populations derived from different zygotes of the same or different species
9/12/2012 hybrid an offspring produced by mating organisms from different species, varieties, or genotypes
9/13/2012 mosaic an individual or cell cultures having two or more cell lines that are karyotypically or genotypically distinct but are derived from a single zygote
9/14/2012 fertilization union of male and female gametes to form the diploid zygote
9/17/2012 synapsis the pairing off and union of homologous chromosomes from male and female pronuclei at the start of meiosis
9/18/2012 partenogenesis  form of reproduction in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual, occurring commonly among insects
9/19/2012 anastomosis connection of two structures, refers to connections between blood vessels or between other tubular structures such as loops of intestine
9/20/2012 synapse the junction across which a nerve impulse passes from an axon terminal to a neuron, a muscle cell, or a gland cell
9/21/2012 arthrosis an articulation between bones
9/24/2012 fibrocartilage callous a temporary formation of fibroblasts and chondroblasts which forms at the area of a bone fracture as the bone attempts to heal itself
9/25/2012 arthrodesis surgical fusion of a joint
9/26/2012 ankylosis the fusion of a joint, often in an abnormal position, usually resulting from destruction of articular cartilage and subchondral bone
9/27/2012 hybridoma cell produced by fusion of antibody-producing lymphocyte and nonantibody-producing cancer cell, produces a specific monoclonal antibody
9/28/2012 pseudoarthrosis a nonosseous union of bone fragments due to inadequate immobilization leading to existence of a 'false joint'

October 2012     "Teratism"

Date Word Definition
10/1/2012 defect an imperfection, failure, or absence
10/2/2012 anomaly a deviation from the average or norm
10/3/2012 malformation a morphologic defect of an organ or larger region of the body, resulting from an intrinsically abnormal developmental process
10/4/2012 congenital existing at, and usually before, birth; referring to conditions that are present at birth, regardless of their causation
10/5/2012 dysmorphism an abnormality in the development of form or structure
10/8/2012 teratism a defect in formation or development, the condition of being a monster
10/9/2012 teratogen an agent or factor that causes physical defects in the developing embryo
10/10/2012 teratology a branch of embryology and pathology that studies abnormal development and congenital defects
10/11/2012 katadidymus a nonviable fetus that develops with two heads and one body
10/12/2012 acephalus a fetus lacking a head
10/15/2012 dibrachia a developmental anomaly of duplication of a forelimb
10/16/2012 acardius a twin fetus lacking a heart
10/17/2012 anadidymus a nonviable fetus that develops with one head and two bodies
10/18/2012 sirenomelus a fetus with fused legs and no feet
10/19/2012 phocomelia lacking proximal portion of limbs with the distal portion attached directly to the trunk 
10/22/2012 dicephaly a developmental anomaly of two heads
10/23/2012 polysomy congenital defect of having one or more extra chromosomes in somatic cells
10/24/2012 teratoma tumor consisting of different types of tissue, as of skin, hair, and muscle, caused by the development of independent germ cells
10/25/2012 teratoblastoma a neoplasm containing embryonic elements, differing from a teratoma in that its tissue does not represent all germinal layers
10/26/2012 teratic embryo a fetus that is grossly malformed and usually nonviable
10/29/2012 teratophobia fear of giving birth to a monster
10/30/2012 monster a fetus with such pronounced developmental abnormalities as to be grotesque and usually nonviable

November 2012    "I say high, you say low..."

Date Word Definition
11/1/2012 deep away from the surface
11/2/2012 distal  away from the center
11/5/2012 caudal away from the head
11/6/2012 inferior situated below another structure
11/7/2012 lateral toward the side
11/8/2012 medial toward the middle
11/9/2012 dorsal toward the spine (back of the body)
11/12/2012 ventral toward the sternum (front of the body)
11/13/2012 proximal toward the beginning of a structure
11/14/2012 superficial near the surface
11/15/2012 cephalic toward the head
11/16/2012 anterior toward the head
11/19/2012 posterior toward the tail
11/20/2012 plantar on the walking surface of the posterior feet
11/21/2012 palmar on the walking surface of the anterior feet
11/26/2012 superior situated above another structure
11/27/2012 efferent conducting away from a structure
11/28/2012 rostral toward the nose
11/29/2012 central  toward the center
11/30/2012 intermediate between medial and lateral

December 2012     "Give Peace A Chance..."

Date Word Definition
12/3/2012 aggression a forceful action or procedure, unprovoked, especially when intended to dominate or subdue a rival
12/4/2012 redirected aggression when an animal is touched or restrained by a human,while it is fighting or threatening, and the aggression is transferred
12/5/2012 dominant high status in a social group, usually acquired as the result of aggression, taking priority in access to limited resources
12/6/2012 submissive characterized by tendencies to yield to the will or authority of others
12/7/2012 appeasement granting concessions to potential enemies to maintain peace, making gestures indicating recognition of social status
12/10/2012 stress a real or perceived perturbation to an organism’s physiological homeostasis or psychological well-being
12/11/2012 territorial a behavior pattern in animals consisting of the occupation and defense of a territory
12/12/2012 fear a distressing emotion aroused by impending danger, pain, etc., whether the threat is imminent or anticipated
12/13/2012 distress aversive, negative state when coping/adaptation processes fail to return an organism to physiological/psychological homeostasis
12/14/2012 pain physical suffering or distress, as due to injury or illness
12/17/2012 co-parenting two females share parenting duties for one litter or their litters together, often pairing primapara females with experienced females
12/18/2012 heirarchy the establishment of a dominance-subordination relationship among higher animal social orders
12/19/2012 alpha animal the dominant animal in a social group, assumes a leadership role
12/20/2012 beta animal the second animal in a social group, second only to the alpha animal
12/21/2012 habituation the suppression of response to a repeated harmless stimulus

January 2013     "Go on take a bite"

Date Word Definition
1/2/2013 areflexia absence of a reflex
1/3/2013 cyanosis bluish discoloration of skin/mucous membranes from lack of oxygen in blood
1/4/2013 diaphoresis perspiration when copious and drug induced
1/7/2013 hematemesis vomiting of blood
1/8/2013 iridocyclitis inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye
1/9/2013 oliguria excretion of an abnormally small volume of urine
1/10/2013 rhinorrhea persistent watery mucus discharge from the nose
1/11/2013 stomatitis inflammation of the mucous tissue of the mouth
1/14/2013 urticaria itchy skin eruption of weals with pale interiors and well-defined red margins
1/15/2013 tetany condition characterized by periodic painful muscular spasms and tremors
1/16/2013 tachypnea rapid respirations
1/17/2013 vomiting to eject part or all of the contents of the stomach through the mouth
1/18/2013 pallor extreme or unnatural paleness of the skin
1/21/2013 fasciculation muscular twitching of contiguous groups of muscle fibers
1/22/2013 asphyxia lack of oxygen in the blood due to restricted respiration
1/23/2013 angioedema recurrent large circumscribed areas of subcutaneous edema
1/24/2013 convulsion a violent involuntary contraction of a muscle or muscles
1/25/2013 hypertension abnormally high blood pressure
1/28/2013 halitosis an unpleasant odor emanating from the mouth
1/29/2013 lacrimation excessive secretion of tears
1/30/2013 diarrhea excessive and frequent evacuation of watery feces
1/31/2013 salivation abnormally abundant flow of saliva

February 2013    "Tis the heart of a pig you hold in your hand."

Date Word Definition
2/1/2013 heart chambered muscular organ that pumps blood received from the veins into the arteries
2/4/2013 atrium smaller, thin muscled chamber of heart which passes blood into the ventricle
2/5/2013 ventricle one of the thick muscular chambers of the heart making up the bulk of the organ
2/6/2013 septum the musclcular wall separating the left from the right side of the heart
2/7/2013 cusp a tapered triangular flap of membrane composing a valve in the heart
2/8/2013 tricuspid valve the valve between the right atria and ventricle having 3 flaps
2/11/2013 mitral valve the valve between the left atria and ventricle having 2 flaps
2/12/2013 bicuspid valve the valve between the left atria and ventricle having 2 flaps
2/13/2013 semilunar valve the aortic and pulmonary valves preventing blood flow backwards
2/14/2013 papillary muscle conical muscular projections in the ventricles attached to the valves by the chordae tendineae
2/15/2013 chordae tendineae the tendons that connect the cusps of the heart valves to the muscles
2/18/2013 SA node origin of cardiac rhythm, called the pacemaker of the heart
2/19/2013 AV node transmits the cardiac signal initiated by the SA node
2/20/2013 Bundle of His transmits the atrial contraction rhythm to the ventricles
2/21/2013 Purkinji fibers specialized cells that carry the electical impulses make up the bundle of His
2/22/2013 aorta the main trunk of the arterial system originates at the left ventricle of the heart
2/25/2013 inferior vena cava the main trunk of the venous system from the lower body which empties into the right atrium of the heart
2/26/2013 superior vena cava the main trunk of the venous system from the upper body which empties into the right atrium of the heart
2/27/2013 diastole atria and ventricles relax allowing blood to fill the chambers
2/28/2013 systole atria and ventricles contract forcing blood out of the chambers

March 2013      "What are you, and who are you doing here?"

Date Word Definition
3/1/2013 zebrafish Danio rerio used for studies on vision and reproduction
3/4/2013 LW rats Rattus norvegicus, LOBUND Wistar used for prostate cancer and vaccine development
3/5/2013 hairless mice Mus musculus used for imaging studies due to lack of hair
3/6/2013 athymic nude mice used for cancer, transplantation of tissue studies due to lack of immunity
3/7/2013 SD rats Sprague-Dawley rats used in parasite studies, surgical manipulations
3/8/2013 rabbits Oryctolagus cunniculus used in bone healing/development, antibody production
3/11/2013 hamsters Mesocrictus auratus used for parasitic infections
3/12/2013 xenopus Xenopus laevis used for reproductive studies
3/13/2013 bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana used for reproductive/behavioral studies
3/14/2013 mini pigs Sus scrofa domestica used as models of human surgical procedures and skin healing
3/15/2013 SCID mice Severe Combined Immunodeficient mice used for tumor studies due to lack of immunity
3/18/2013 guinea pigs Cavia porcellus used for mosquito blood feeding
3/19/2013 ICR mice Imprinting Control Region (ICR) outbred mouse used for blood feeding/PK and genetic studies
3/20/2013 129 mice used as a background strain for transgene/knockout mouse development
3/21/2013 C57BL/6 mice inbred mice used as a background for transgenic strains, the most commonly used mouse
3/22/2013 min mouse multiple intestinal neoplasia mice, spontaneously develops colon polyps and cancer
3/25/2013 gerbils Meriones unguiculatus or jird used as parasitic host
3/26/2013 Zucker rats a strain of rat that develops diabetes mellitus - used for wound healing studies
3/27/2013 brine shrimp Atremia salina used as live food for zebrafish
3/28/2013 vinegar eels Turbatrix aceti a free living nematode grown in vinegar culture as live food for zebrafish fry

April 2013      "He's Doc."

Date Word Definition
4/1/2013 anesthesiologist a physician specializing in anesthesia
4/2/2013 gastroenterologist a physician specializing in diseases of the digestive system
4/3/2013 ophthalmologist a physician specializing in disease of the eye
4/4/2013 gerontologist a physician specializing in treating the elderly
4/5/2013 neurologist a physician specializing in diseases of the nervous system
4/8/2013 oncologist a physician specializing in the treatment of cancers
4/9/2013 radiologist a doctor specializing in use of radiant energy for diagnosis/treatment of disease
4/10/2013 orthopedist a surgeon specializing in correction of musculoskeletal problems
4/11/2013 dermatologist a physician that limits practice to diagnosis/treatment of skin disorders
4/12/2013 allergist a physician that limits practice to diagnosis/treatment of allergic disorders
4/15/2013 immunologist a doctor specializing in the study of the response to antigenic challenge
4/16/2013 hematologist a doctor specializing in the study of blood and treatment of blood disorders
4/17/2013 cardiologist a physician specializing in the treatment of diseases of the heart
4/18/2013 endocrinologist a doctor skilled in diagnosis/treatment of disorders of glands of internal secretion
4/19/2013 gynecologist a doctor specialized in the treatment of conditions of the female genital tract
4/22/2013 urologist a physician specializing in treatment of diseases of the urinary tract
4/23/2013 nephrologist a doctor that specializes in treating conditions of the kidney
4/24/2013 otorhinolaryngologist a doctor specializing in ear, nose, and throat conditions and diseases
4/25/2013 psychiatrist a physician specializing in the study/treatment/prevention of mental illness
4/26/2013 pulmonologist a doctor that specializes in treating conditions of the lungs
4/29/2013 podiatrist a doctor that specializes in treating conditions of the feet
4/30/2013 dentist a doctor that specializes in oral health and tooth care

May 2013     "You're Sleepy"

Date Word Definition
5/1/2013 circadian rhythm innate, daily, fluctuation of behavioral and physiological functions tied to 24 hr cycle
5/2/2013 diurnal active and wakeful in the daytime
5/3/2013 nocturnal active and wakeful in the night
5/6/2013 sleep a state marked by lessened consciousness, movement, and slowed metabolism
5/7/2013 REM Rapid Eye Movement sleep most dreaming occurs in this stage is 20% of sleep
5/8/2013 NREM non-REM sleep makes up 80% of sleep
5/9/2013 light sleep stage 1 and 2 of non-REM sleep
5/10/2013 deep sleep stage 3 and 4 of non-REM sleep
5/13/2013 serotonin neurotransmitter in the brain that modulates mood, appetite, body temp and sleep
5/14/2013 melatonin hormone derived from serotonin in the pineal gland, involved in sleep, aging, and reproduction
5/15/2013 brain waves the brain’s spontaneous electrical activity studied by electroencephalography (EEG)
5/16/2013 alpha brain rhythm EEG oscillations over the occipital cortex, indicative of an awake relaxed state
5/17/2013 beta brain rhythm second most common waveform occurring in EEGs indicating active alert state
5/20/2013 arousal threshold ease that a sleeping person is awakened
5/21/2013 narcolepsy sleep disorder, an abnormal tendency to pass directly from wakefulness into REM sleep
5/22/2013 photoperiod duration of light in a light/dark cycle
5/23/2013 zeitgerber environmental time cue that entrains biological rhythms to a specific periodicity
5/24/2013 sleep apnea the cessation of airflow at the nostrils and mouth for at least 10 seconds
5/27/2013 nightmare unpleasant and/or frightening dream occurring in REM sleep
5/28/2013 myoclonus muscle contractions in the form of "jerks" or twitches
5/29/2013 insomnia difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep
5/30/2013 bruxism grinding the teeth while asleep

June 2013    "I'm Sneezy."

Date Word Definition
6/3/2013 antigen a substance capable of inducing the formation of antibodies and reacting with the antibodies so produced
6/4/2013 antibody an immunoglobulin molecule with an specific amino acid sequence that reacts only with the antigen that induced its synthesis
6/5/2013 allergy a hypersensitive state acquired by exposure to a particular antigen, re-exposure resulting in an altered capacity to react
6/6/2013 allergen a protein or non-protein capable of inducing hypersensitivity
6/7/2013 atopy a clinical hypersensitive state with a hereditary predisposition
6/10/2013 anaphylaxis an exaggerated allergic response caused by an antigen-antibody reaction
6/11/2013 histamine produced by mast cells and basophils and act as a mediator of immediate hypersensitivity
6/12/2013 antihistamine a drug that counteracts the action of histamine
6/13/2013 desensitize to remove antibody from sensitized cells for the purpose of preventing allergy or anaphylaxis
6/14/2013 contact allergy a hypersensitive skin reaction caused by dermal contact with an allergen
6/17/2013 food allergy a hypersensitive reaction caused by the ingestion of certain foods or drugs, usually manifested by skin reaction
6/18/2013 lacrimation the secretion and discharge of tears
6/19/2013 erythema a redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion
6/20/2013 sneeze an involuntary, sudden, violent and audible expulsion of air through the nose and mouth
6/21/2013 sternutation the act of sneezing
6/24/2013 conjunctivitis inflammation of the membranes that line the eye lids and sclera
6/25/2013 pruritis an unpleasant cutaneous sensation that provokes the desire to scratch or rub the skin
6/26/2013 urticaria a vascular reaction of the skin with the formation of smooth, raised, red patches attended by severe itching
6/27/2013 allergic dermatitis any inflammation of the skin believed to be caused by allergy
6/28/2013 urticaria an inflammation of the nasal sinuses

July 2013     "I'm Happy. He's Dopey."

Date Word Definition
7/1/2013 dizzy a disturbed sense of relationship to space
7/2/2013 vertigo a sense of movement of the external world often due to middle ear diseases
7/3/2013 happy  feeling, showing, or expressing joy
7/5/2013 mute unable to vocalize
7/8/2013 mania the episode of intense euphoria found in people with bipolar disorder
7/9/2013 ataxia an inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements
7/10/2013 trance a profound or abnormal sleep from which the individual cannot be easily aroused, not due to organic disease
7/11/2013 torpor lack of response to normal or ordinary stimuli
7/12/2013 stupor partial or nearly unconscious state from many causes
7/15/2013 coma a deep prolonged unconsciousness where the patient cannot be aroused
7/16/2013 confusion impaired orientation with respect to time, place or person
7/17/2013 inebriation the condition of being drunk
7/18/2013 aphasia loss of power of expression by speech
7/19/2013 elation emotional excitement marked by acceleration of mental/bodily activity, extreme joy and overly optimistic attitude
7/22/2013 lethargy abnormal drowsiness or stupor, a condition of indifference
7/23/2013 dysphoria a state of feeling unwell or unhappy
7/24/2013 mood a conscious state of mind or predominant emotion
7/25/2013 torticollis a muscle contraction causing a twist of the neck and unnatural head position, often seen with inner ear infection
7/26/2013 feelings an emotional state or reaction
7/29/2013 incoordination lack of coordination especially of muscular movements resulting from loss of voluntary control
7/30/2013 euphoria an exaggerated state of happiness, with no foundation in truth or reality
7/31/2013 intoxication the condition of being drunk

August 2013    "There's dirty work afoot."

Date Word Definition
8/1/2013 feces excrement discharged from the intestines consists of bacteria, food residue, cells, liver secretions
8/2/2013 diarrhea abnormal frequency and liquidity of intestinal discharges
8/5/2013 excrement fecal matter
8/6/2013 constipation infrequent or difficult evacuation of the intestines
8/7/2013 steatorrhea abnormal amount of fats in the feces resulting in oily and especially foul-smelling discharge
8/8/2013 keriorrhea greasy, orange-colored feces from consuming indigestible wax esters found in oil fish and escolar
8/9/2013 melena black, "tarry" feces that are associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage
8/12/2013 hematochezia the passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools
8/13/2013 exania prolapse of the rectum
8/14/2013 fecal impaction collection of hardened feces in the rectum
8/15/2013 defecation the passage of fecal matter from the rectum
8/16/2013 urine sterile liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidneys
8/19/2013 micturition the passage of urine
8/20/2013 oliguria reduced excretion of urine
8/21/2013 polyuria excessive secretion of urine
8/22/2013 dysuria difficult or painful discharge of urine
8/23/2013 hematuria red blood cells in the urine
8/26/2013 beeturia red or pink urine after eating beetroots or foods colored with beetroot extract
8/27/2013 melanuria the presence of melanins (black, brown, yellow pigments) in the urine
8/28/2013 hyperuriscouria excessive amounts of uric acid in the urine
8/29/2013 ketonuria condition in which ketone bodies are present in the urine
8/30/2013 urination the passage of urine

September 2013      "Why, the whole place is clean."

Date Word Definition
9/3/2013 sanitation the development and establishment of environmental conditions favourable to the health of the public
9/4/2013 disinfection to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in or on any substance or to inhibit their growth and vital activity
9/5/2013 contamination soiling or pollution by material, as by the introduction of organisms into a wound
9/6/2013 decontamination removing a foreign substance that is regarded as harmful to the individual or object
9/9/2013 sterilization the complete elimination of microbial viability
9/10/2013 asepsis freedom from infection or septic materials
9/11/2013 sepsis the presence in the blood or other tissues of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins
9/12/2013 debridement removal of foreign material and devitalized/contaminated tissue surrounding a traumatic/infected lesion
9/13/2013 dehiscence a splitting open, as a surgical wound
9/16/2013 bactericidal destructive to bacterial - kills bacteria
9/17/2013 bacteriostatic inhibiting the growth or multiplication of bacteria
9/18/2013 virocide an agent that destroys a virus
9/19/2013 fungicide an agent that destroys a fungus
9/20/2013 sanitize to clean and sterilize as eating or drinking utensils
9/23/2013 autoclave to sterilize by steam under pressure
9/24/2013 hygiene the science of health and its preservation
9/25/2013 scrub the action of using a brush/sponge to disinfect the hands ad arms prior to performing surgery
9/26/2013 infection invasion of tissues by microorganisms resulting in cellular injury
9/27/2013 inflammation a localized protective response of tissues to invasion by microorganisms
9/30/2013 pathogen any disease producing microorganism or material 

October 2013    "Her breath will still, her blood congeal."

Date Word Definition
10/1/2013 coagulation the process of blood clot formation
10/2/2013 clot a semi-solidified mass, as of blood
10/3/2013 platelet a disc shaped structure found in mammalian blood involved in coagulation
10/4/2013 thrombocyte a disc shaped structure found in mammalian blood involved in coagulation
10/7/2013 coagulation factor substances in the blood that are essential to clotting process and hemostasis
10/8/2013 anticoagulant substance that prevents the clotting of blood
10/9/2013 heparin an anticoagulant derived from liver/lungs, used in treatment of thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, frostbit
10/10/2013 sodium citrate an anticoagulant derived as a salt of citric acid
10/11/2013 EDTA ethylenediiaminotetraacetate, an anticoagulant
10/14/2013 Factor I fibrinogen; a plasma protein that is converted to fibrin by thrombin
10/15/2013 Factor II prothrombin; a plasma protein that is converted to thrombin
10/16/2013 Thrombin the enzyme derived from prothrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin
10/17/2013 Factor III tissue thromboplastin; found in several tissues important in the formation of prothrombin
10/18/2013 Factor IV calcium; required in many phases of blood coagulation
10/21/2013 Factor IX plasma thromboplastin component; storage-stable factor in the intrinsic coagulation pathway
10/22/2013 Protein C is important in regulating blood clotting, inflammation, and  permeability of blood vessel walls
10/23/2013 apnea cessation of breathing
10/24/2013 atelectasis collapse of the adult lung or incomplete expansion of lungs at birth
10/25/2013 asphyxia lack of oxygen in air resulting in cessation of apparent life
10/28/2013 aspiration the act of inhaling
10/29/2013 expiration the act of expelling air from the lungs
10/30/2013 respiration the exchange of O2/CO2 between the atmosphere and the cells of the body
10/31/2013 ventilation the exchange of of air between the lungs and the ambient air

November 2013  "Only true love's first kiss will awaken her."

Date Word Definition
11/1/2013 kiss the pressing of two surfaces together
11/4/2013 conscious capable of responding to sensory stimuli
11/5/2013 sleep a period of rest for body and mind
11/6/2013 oscitate to yawn
11/7/2013 apnea cessation of breathing
11/8/2013 coma state of unconsciousness
11/11/2013 oscultate to kiss
11/12/2013 apogee the state of greatest severity of a disease
11/13/2013 trance a profound or abnormal sleep with the loss of voluntary movement
11/14/2013 stare a fixed unblinking gaze
11/15/2013 arousal a state of responsiveness to sensory stimulation
11/18/2013 pupillotonia a pupil which responds in a slow delayed manner to stimuli
11/19/2013 alert quick to perceive and react
11/20/2013 supine lying on the back with the face upward
11/21/2013 pandiculation the act of a whole body stretching and yawning simultaneously
11/22/2013 knismogenic producing a tickling sensation
11/25/2013 refractory not readily yeilding to treatment
11/26/2013 awake to bring back to consciousness
11/27/2013 mithridatism acquire immunity to effects of a poison by ingesting gradually increasing amounts

December 2013   "Time to wash up."

Date Word Definition
12/2/2013 asepsis prevention of contact with microorganisms
12/3/2013 sterility state of being free from microorganisms
12/4/2013 surgical scrub  washing hands/forearms in a prescribed manner before a surgical procedure
12/5/2013 antiseptic  substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
12/6/2013 povidone-iodine a polymer combined with iodine, slowly releases iodine, a topical antiinfective agent
12/9/2013 chlorhexidine a long-lasting liquid antiseptic; used to wash hands/ scrub skin before surgery
12/10/2013 alcohol  colorless volatile flammable liquid obtained by fermentation used as an antiseptic
12/11/2013 bacteriostatic having the ability to inhibit bacterial growth
12/12/2013 bacteriocidal having the property of destroying bacteria
12/13/2013 sterile gloving aiming to achieve a germ-free condition by donning sterile gloves
12/16/2013 surgical gown a special sterile cover worn to achieve a germ-free state during a surgical procedure
12/17/2013 sterile field the area that is draped during surgery, includes the surgical site, instruments, surgeons
12/18/2013 clean room  a room that is maintained free of contaminants, such as dust or bacteria
12/19/2013 disinfectant an agent preventing infection by inhibiting the growth or action of microorganisms
12/20/2013 sanitize to make sanitary, as by cleaning or disinfecting
12/23/2013 autoclave a device for heating to kill all microorganisms used for surgical equipment, trash, food, water
12/24/2013 sterilize to make free from live bacteria or other microorganisms                       

January 2014      "I've Lost My Mind"

Date Word Definition
1/2/2014 brain controls all necessary functions of the body, receives and interprets information from the outside world
1/3/2014 cerebrum the largest part of the brain, divided into left and right hemispheres performs higher functions
1/6/2014 cerebellum located behind and slightly under the cerebrum coordinates muscle movements
1/7/2014 thalamus relay for the cerebral cortex, has a role in pain sensation, memory, and alertness
1/8/2014 brainstem includes midbrain, pons and medula, a relay center connecting brain to spinal cord, where primative functions are located
1/9/2014 midbrain center for ocular motion
1/10/2014 pons connects cerebrum and cerebellum coordinating eye and facial movements, hearing, balance
1/13/2014 medulla oblongata controls breathing, BP, heart rhythms, swallowing, digestion
1/14/2014 corpus callosum thick band of fibers that connects the left and right brain hemispheres
1/15/2014 ventricles four cavities connected by tubes or openings which produce circulating cerebrospinal fluid 
1/16/2014 olfactory bulb the bulb shaped end of the olfactory lobe involved in the sense of smell 
1/17/2014 meninges membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord
1/20/2014 optic chiasm located below the hypothalmus, where the optic nerves partially cross
1/21/2014 hypothalamus in the floor of the 3rd ventricle, controls autonomic system - hunger, thirst, sleep, BP, body temp
1/22/2014 pituitary gland lies in a pocket of bone in the skull base, master gland controls all exocrine glands, growth, stress, development
1/23/2014 pineal gland sits behind the 3rd ventricle, regulates circadian rhythms, secretes melatonin, role in sexual development
1/24/2014 dura mater Latin meaning "tough mother" is the outer most of 3 meninges, thin and very tough
1/27/2014 cortex the surface of the cerebrum
1/28/2014 grey matter made of neurons that make up the cortex
1/29/2014 white matter made of axons,  long fibers that connect neurons
1/30/2014 gyrus a fold in the cortex
1/31/2014 sulcus a crease or groove between the folds in the cortex

 

February 2014  "My Brain Hurts"

Date Word Definition
2/3/2014 circling where an animal will turn in circles, usually toward the side where the brain lesion is located
2/4/2014 ataxia uncoordinated gait may be caused by lesions in cerebrum, cerebellum, or spinal cord
2/5/2014 seizures involuntary movements, sensory disturbances & altered consciousness, can be caused by cerebral lesions
2/6/2014 anisocoria pupils of unequal size, can be caused by lesions on, compression of cranial nerve III, or injury to the spine 
2/7/2014 hemineglect reduced reaction to stimulus (pinching the side) contralateral to a lesion in the cerebrum 
2/10/2014 craniotomy the surgical operation of opening the skull
2/11/2014 nystagmus involuntary eye movement, may be a sign of vestibular lesion or lesion in the brainstem or cerebellum
2/12/2014 torticollis a head tilt, can be a sign of vestibular lesion or lesion in the brainstem or cerebellum
2/13/2014 strabismus eyes are not properly aligned with each other, may indicate a lesion in the brainstem or cerebellum
2/14/2014 opisthotonus dorsiflexion of the head and neck can be caused by a severe lesion in the cerebellum
2/17/2014 coma state of unconsciousness lasting more than six hours, may indicate brain edema, or lesion in the midbrain
2/18/2014 miosis constricted pupils, may indicate a lesion in the midbrain
2/19/2014 endophthalmia sunken eyes, may indicate a lesion in the midbrain
2/20/2014 ptosis drooping eyelid, may indicate a lesion in the midbrain
2/21/2014 paralysis loss or impairment of the ability to move a body part, usually as a result of damage to its nerve supply
2/24/2014 hydocephalus abnormal accumulation of fluid in the cerebral ventricles causes brain compression destroying neural tissue
2/25/2014 encephalitis an inflamed condition of the brain
2/26/2014 heterotopia normal tissue is misplaced in the brain, so that masses of gray matter are found in the white matter
2/27/2014 lobotomy surgical incision into the frontal lobe of the brain to sever one or more nerve tracts
2/28/2014 cephalalgia headache, often related to changes in vascular size of brain vessels due to spasm and dilation
 

March 2014   "Think about it"

Date Word Definition
3/3/2014 mentation mental activity
3/4/2014 sentient able to feel
3/5/2014 avoidance a defensive reaction intended to escape danger/fear/pain/conflict
3/6/2014 intellect thinking faculty or understanding
3/7/2014 intelligence the ability to comprehend or understand
3/10/2014 psyche the human faculty for thought, judgment, and emotion
3/11/2014 psychology the branch of science that deals with mental processes of animal/human behavior
3/12/2014 psychosis any major mental disorder of organic/emotional origin
3/13/2014 pathergasia term for mental malfunction implying functional/ structural damage
3/14/2014 phobia any persistent abnormal dread or fear
3/17/2014 insensible devoid of consciousness, not perceived by the senses
3/18/2014 perception conscious mental registration of a sensory stimulus
3/19/2014 thinking formulation of images or concepts in the mind
3/20/2014 anamnesis the faculty of memory
3/21/2014 cognition operation of the mind with awareness of thought, perception, and memory
3/24/2014 amnesia loss or lack of memory
3/25/2014 confusion mingling of ideas with disturbances of comprehension/ understanding
3/26/2014 amentia a congenital lack of the ordinary mental ability, marked by mental confusion
3/27/2014 dementia general term for mental deterioration
3/28/2014 pithing destroying brain/spinal cord using a blunt needle
3/31/2014 decapitation removal of the head, usually using a guillotine


April 2014
 "You've gotta have heart"

Date Word Definition
4/1/2014 cardiac pertaining to the heart
4/2/2014 cardiopathy any disease or disorder of the heart
4/3/2014 cardiology the study of the heart and its functions
4/4/2014 cardiologist a physician skilled in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease
4/7/2014 cardioactive having an effect on the heart, refers to drugs
4/8/2014 cardiotoxic having a poisonous/deleterious effect on the heart, refers to drugs
4/9/2014 cardiotonic having a tonic (restoring tone to the muscle) effect on the heart, refers to drugs
4/10/2014 cardioinhibitor an agent that restrains the heart's action
4/11/2014 cardiant an agent that stimulates the heart
4/14/2014 infarct necrosis of tissue from ischemia due to obstruction of blood circulation
4/15/2014 carditis inflammation of the heart
4/16/2014 cardiodynia pain in the heart
4/17/2014 angina agina pectoris, a feeling of suffocation/impending death from anoxia of myocardium
4/21/2014 electrocardiogram ECG, the recording of the electrical impulses generated by and conducted through heart muscle
4/22/2014 echocardiogram a recording of the heart's movement and position through use of ultrasonic waves
4/23/2014 cardiotachometry continuous recording of the heart rate over long periods of time
4/24/2014 ausculation the act of listening to sounds within the body chiefly for assessing the heart and lungs
4/25/2014 cardiometer an instrumant for rstimating the power of the heart's contraction
4/28/2014 cardioptsosis a downward displacement of the heart
4/29/2014 dextrocardia location of the heart in the right side of the chest with the apex pointing to the right instead of the left
4/30/2014 cardiocentesis surgical puncture of the heart

May 2014  "I only have eyes for you"

Date Word Definition
5/1/2014 eyeball the organ of vision
5/2/2014 palpebrae the eyelids
5/4/2014 cilium the eyelid or its outer edge, (plural -cilia) the lashes growing from the eyelid
5/5/2014 medial canthus the angle formed by the union of the upper and lower eyelids medially
5/6/2014 lacrimal caruncle the rounded often pigmentsed swelling at the medial canthus of the eye
5/7/2014 lacrimal duct the excretory duct of the lacrimal gland
5/8/2014 sclera the tough white outer coat of the eyeball, covers 5/6 of the eye
5/12/2014 conjunctiva the delicate membranes that line the eyelids and cover the exposed surface of the sclera
5/13/2014 nictitating membrane a fold of conjunctival membrane hidden in the medial canthus of the eye, can extend to cover part or all of the cornea
5/14/2014 Harderian gland the part of the third eyelid that lies between the cartilege of the third eyelid and the cornea
5/15/2014 cornea the transparent structure forming the anterior part of the fibrous tunic of the eye
5/16/2014 iris the circular pigmented membrane brhind the cornea perforated by the pupil
5/19/2014 lens the transparent biconvex body of the eye that is the refracting mechanism of vision
5/20/2014 pupil the opening in the center of the iris which allows light into the eye
5/21/2014 retina the innermost layer of the eye containing cones and rods that allow perception of visual stimuli
5/22/2014 aqueous humor the fluid produced filling the spaces in front of the lens and its attachments
5/23/2014 vitreous humor the clear gelatinous substance that fills the eyeball between the retina and the lens
5/27/2014 choroid the dark brown vascular coat of the eye between the retina and the sclera
5/28/2014 optic disk an oval area of the retina lacking light receptors where the optic nerve is formed, the blind spot
5/29/2014 optic nerve 2nd cranial nerve, part of the CNS consists of axons and cells of the ganglionic layer of the retina
5/30/2014 supercilia the eyebrows

June 2014  "I've got you under my skin"

Date Word Definition
6/2/2014 epidermis the outer most non-vascular layer of skin, made of 5 layers
6/3/2014 dermis the layer of skin under the epidermis, consists of dense vascular connective tissue
6/4/2014 basal layer the deepest layer composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly
6/5/2014 spinus layer the layer above the basal cells, composed of rounded or polygonal pigmented cells
6/6/2014 granular layer the layer above the spinus cells, composed of flattened granular cells
6/9/2014 clear layer the layer above the granular cells, composed of several layers of transparent nucleated cells
6/10/2014 cornified layer the topmost layer of the epidermis, composed of flattened cells containing keritin
6/11/2014 keritin a very insoluble protein, the principal constituent of epidermis, hair and nails
6/12/2014 dermatitis inflammation of the skin
6/13/2014 dermatosis any disease of the skin
6/16/2014 dermatology the medical specialty concerned with diseases of the skin
6/17/2014 in tela in tissue, relating to stained histological specimens
6/18/2014 intradermal within the dermis, a location for injection
6/19/2014 intracutaneous within the skin
6/20/2014 erythema redness of the skin caused by conjestion of the capillaries
6/23/2014 abrasion an area of the body surface denuded of skin by an abnormal mechanical process
6/24/2014 cutaneous pertaining to the skin
6/25/2014 subcutaneous beneath the skin, a location for injection
6/26/2014 pigment any normal or abnormal coloring matter of the body
6/27/2014 melanin a dark amorphous pigment of the skin, hair, and some tumors

July 2014      "Hair"

Date Word Definition
7/1/2014 hair dense growth of threadlike structures; helps to prevent heat loss; each hair consists of layers of dead keratinized cells
7/2/2014 pelage the hairy coat of animals
7/3/2014 fur short, very fine and soft hair of animals
7/7/2014 pilus a hair
7/8/2014 pilology the study of hair
7/9/2014 pelt the undressed, raw skin of a wild animal with the fur in place
7/10/2014 ground hair thick bottom layer of short wool hairs, usually wavy/curly; creats a layer of dry air next to the skin and repels liquid 
7/11/2014 down hair another term for ground hair
7/14/2014 awn hair intermediate hair in a mammal's coat, shorter than guard hairs and longer than down hairs; help with insulation 
7/15/2014 guard hair any of the coarse hair that form the outer fur in certain mammals, rising above the underfur
7/16/2014 vibrissae sensory hair projections in animals
7/17/2014 whisker another tern for vibrissae
7/18/2014 trichoesthesia the sensation felt when a hair is touched
7/21/2014 achromotrichia absence or loss of pigment in the hair
7/22/2014 alopecia baldness; absence of hair where it normally is present
7/23/2014 naked the term used for mammals with reduced amounts of fur
7/24/2014 barbering behavior where dominant rodent grooms cage mates to the point of baldness, primarily on head, neck and shoulders 
7/25/2014 trichologia a nervous habit of plucking at the hair
7/28/2014 trichophagia the eating of hair or woo
7/29/2014 shedding to lose hair by a natural process often linked to the seasons in animals
7/30/2014 horripilation erection of the fine hairs of the skin
7/31/2014 trichobezoar a hair cast (ball) in the stomach or intestinal tract, common in cats, rabbits, and goats
 

August 2014  "Teach your children well"

Date Word Definition
8/1/2014 nidicolous remaining in the nest for some time after birth
8/4/2014 nidifugous leaving the nest right after hatching or birth
8/5/2014 altricial young are born or hatched helpless
8/6/2014 precocial young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching
8/7/214 neonate the newly born
8/8/2014 pups the name for baby mice, rats, dogs, hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, and prairie dogs
8/11/2014 chicks the name for baby chickens, quail, and most birds
8/12/2014 kittens/kits the name for baby cats, fox, weasels, skunks, and rabbits
8/13/2014 piglets the name for baby pigs and hedgehogs
8/14/2014 calf the name for baby cows, whales, bison, camels, elephants and hippopotamus
8/15/2014 cub the name for a baby walrus, tiger, bear and raccoon
8/18/2014 tadpole the name for a baby frog
8/19/2014 cria the name for a baby llama, alpaca, and vicuna
8/20/2014 fawn the name for a baby deer
8/21/2014 squab the name for a baby pigeon or dove
8/22/2014 foal the name for a baby horse, zebra, donkey, or mule
8/25/2014 joey the name for a baby opposum, wallaby, kangaroo, wombat, and koala
8/26/2014 kid the name for a baby goat
8/27/2014 poult the name for a baby turkey
8/28/2014 infant the name for a baby human, baboon, ape, and monkey
8/29/2014 puggle the name for a baby platypus

September 2014  "Circle of Life"

Date Word Definition
9/2/2014 death cessation of life, permanent cessation of all bodily functions
9/3/2014 euthanasia a deliberate and easy or painless death
9/4/2014 prey a species that is sought and consumed by other species
9/5/2014 predator a species that consumes other species to derive nutrients for existence
9/8/2014 carrion dead and decaying flesh
9/9/2014 carcass the body of a dead animal 
9/10/2014 scavenger an animal that collects and eats carcasses of other animals
9/11/2014 saprophyte any organism living upon dead or decaying organic matter
9/12/2014 parasite an organism living on/in another living organism at whose expense it derives benefit
9/15/2014 symbiosis two dissimilar organisms living together either as a benefit to one or both
9/16/2014 fertilization the act of union of spermatozoa to ovum resulting in further development
9/17/2014 pregnancy the condition of having a developing embryo/fetus in the body
9/18/2014 embryo the derivative of thefertilized ovum that becomes offspring
9/19/2014 neonate newly born
9/22/2014 weanling an animal newly transitioned from breast milk to other nutritional sources
9/23/2014 adolescence the stage from the start of secondary sexual characteristics development tocessation of somatic growth
9/24/2014 mature to be fully developed
9/25/2014 geratic pertaining to old age
9/26/2014 extinct no longer existing
9/29/2014 expire to die or terminate
9/30/2014 revive the restoration of life or consciousness

October 2014  "Bare Bones"

Date Word Definition
10/1/2014 bone dense, semirigid, porous, calcified connective tissue forming most of the skeleton
10/2/2014 compact bone bone that is solid and hard
10/3/2014 cancellous bone bone that is spongy in appearance
10/6/2014 periosteum a dense fibrous membrane covering of the surface of bones
10/7/2014 cambium the inner layer of the periosteum
10/8/2014 endosteum a vascular membrane that lines the inner surface of the long bones
10/9/2014 ossification the formation of bone or a bony substance
10/10/2014 os bone; a general term qualified by appropriate adjectives to designate a specific bony structure
10/13/2014 fibroblast a connective tissue cell that differentiates into chondroblasts, osteoblasts, and collegenoblasts
10/14/2014 collegenoblast a cell arising from a fibroblast that matures to produce collagen or can form cartilage or bone
10/15/2014 osteoblast a cell arising from a fibroblast that matures to bone
10/16/2014 chondroblast a cell arising from a fibroblast that matures to cartilage
10/17/2014 osteocyte a mature bone cell
10/20/2014 long bone elongated bones of vertebrate limbs that have a roughly cylindrical shaft containing marrow
10/21/2014 epiphysis end of a long bone; separated from the main bone by a layer of cartilage that ossifies to fuse the parts
10/22/2014 diaphysis the main (mid) section of a long bone
10/23/2014 metaphysis the growing part of a long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis
10/24/2014 yellow marrow found in long bones; composed predominantly of fat cells
10/27/2014 flat bone consists of 1 to 2 thin layers of compact bone with cancellous bone or marrow between, usually curved
10/28/2014 red marrow found in developing, flat, and small bones; produces RBCs and granular WBCs
10/29/2014 articulation the place of union between two or more bones of the skeleton
10/30/2014 tendon a fibrous cord that attaches muscle to bone
10/31/2014 skeleton the hard framwork of the animal body; especially the bony frame of higher vertebrates

November 2014  "All my organs doing their jobs with no help from me."

Date Word Definition
11/3/2014 liver a large gland in the upper abdomen, stores/filters blood, secretes bile, converts sugar/stores glycogen
11/4/2014 heart a four chambered* muscular organ that maintains circulation of the blood       *in mammals
11/5/2014 spleen a ductless gland-like organ of the lymphoid system, filters and disintegrates RBCs to recycle hemoglobin
11/6/2014 lung paired organs in the thorax that effect aeration of the blood, the primary organ of respiration
11/7/2014 kidney paired organs in the lumbar area that filter blood removing waste products of metabolism, excrete them as urine
11/10/2014 brain the part of the CNS contained in the skull
11/11/2014 skeleton the hard framework of the body, the bones in the bodies of vertebrates
11/12/2014 skin the outer covering of the vertebrate body
11/13/2014 eye the organ of vision, in vertebrates is a sphere set into the skull
11/14/2014 stomach a musculomembraneous expansion of the alimentary canal between the esophagus and duodenum, secretes digestive enzymes
11/17/2014 small intestine the extention of the alimentary canal from the stomach to the cecum, digestion occurs with the absorption od nutrients
11/18/2014 large intestine the extention of the alimentary canal from the sm. intestine to the rectum, location of absorption of liquids and nutrients 
11/19/2014 cecum first part of the large intestine, a blind pouch at the junction of the ilium and the colon, fermentation occurs in some animals
11/20/2014 gonads a gamete producing gland, testes in the male and ovaries in the female
11/21/2014 thymus a ductless gland-like body in the mediastinal cavity, a lymphoid body and site of lymphopoiesis producing T-cells
11/24/2014 adrenal gland a paired gland situated above the kidney produces steroid hormone, estrogens, androgens, epinephrine and norepinephrine
11/25/2014 gall bladder a reservoir for bile, located between the lobes of the liver*                                        *not present in the rat
11/26/2014 urinary bladder a musculomembraneous sac for urine, located in the anterior pelvic cavity, which discharges through the urethra

December 2014   "You move me"

Date Word Definition
12/1/2014 dolly a wheeled platform with or without a handle used to move supplies
12/2/2014 drum dolly a wheeled platform designed to move chemical barrels
12/3/2014 hand truck handcart with a frame, two wheels, ledge at bottom, handles at top; to move heavy objects
12/4/2014 cart open vehicle with two or four wheels, used to carry heavy objects
12/5/2014 stretcher device made of long piece of cloth stretched between 2 poles used for carrying patients
12/8/2014 gurney a wheeled stretcher used for transporting patients
12/9/2014 kick bucket a medical receptacle, usually made of stainless steel, which is mounted on wheels
12/10/2014 backboard stiff board on which the injured is placed, usedpallet jack to immobilize to prevent further injury
12/11/2014 hydraulic lift a machine type that uses a hydraulic apparatus to move or lift objects 
12/12/2014 drum handler a specialized hand truck degigned to lift and move chemical barrels
12/15/2014 pallet jack a manually operated device for lifting and moving pallets
12/16/2014 carrier any cage designed to be carried by hand, usually for small pets
12/17/2014 transport cage any cage designed to move an animal, often on wheels
12/18/2014 sherpa bag a soft flexible fabric bag with mesh inserts for visibility and ventilation
12/19/2014 airline crate a rigid plastic container with slits or holes for ventilation, size dependant on animal
12/22/2014 portable kennel a wire container with a solid bottom, enclosed on all sides
12/23/2014 shipping crate wood container designed to protect the animal during transport, usually a large animal
12/24/2014 filtered box wire mesh lined cardpoard box with woven fliter over ventilation openings

January 2015   "I have a solution for that"

Date Word Definition
1/2/2015 isotonic a solution which can bathe living cells without causing movement of water through the cell membrane
1/5/2015 hypertonic a solution which when living cells are exposed caused movement of water out of the cell
1/6/2015 hypotonic a solution which when living cells are exposed caused movement of water into the cell
1/7/2015 saturated a solution in which the solvent has taken up all the disoolved substance it can hold
1/8/2015 alcoholic a solution in which alcohol is used as the solvent
1/9/2015 aqueous a solution in which water is used as the solvent
1/12/2015 saline an aqueous solution of salt with an osmolality similiar to blood serum
1/13/2015 Ringer's a clear colorless salt solution with added potassium and calcium, used as a physiological replacement
1/14/2015 DMEM Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium, a solution for growth of mammilian cells in culture
1/15/2015 formalin a solution of formaldehyde in water not less than 37%
1/16/2015 NBF Neutral Buffered Formalin, a solution for fixation of tissues for histological examination
1/19/2015 Bouin's a tissue fixative containing formaldehyde, acetic acid, and picric acid
1/20/2015 iodine a reddish brown liquid containing iodine and sodium iodine in water, a topical anti-infective
1/21/2015 boric acid a clear, odorless, colorless solution of 4.25% boric acid used as an external antibacterial
1/22/2015 chlorhexadine a topical anti-infective agent used as a pre-surgical prep or to clean wounds
1/23/2015 ACD acid citrate dextrose solution, an anticoagulant
1/26/2015 sequestersol a solution of EDTA used in blood samples as an anticoagulant
1/27/2015 heparin a muccopolysaccharide acid derived from liver/lungs and used as an anticoagulant in blood
1/28/2015 Gower's a solution of sodium sulfate, acetic acid, and water used for dilution of blood to count RBCs
1/29/2015 contrast  a solution that is opaque on x-ray and used to visualize organs or structures
1/30/2015 egg water a dilute solution of methylene blue used as a supravital stain for viability of zebrafish eggs

February 2015  "Who are these people?"

Date Word Definition
2/2/2015 PI Principal Investigator, responsible for studies including design, funding, and training
2/3/2015 AV Attending Veterinarian, responsible for oversight of veterinary care of all animals on studies
2/4/2015 IACUC Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, responsible for approving research according to federal regulations
2/5/2015 PM Project Manager, responsible for coordinating activities related to a particular study
2/6/2015 BS Bachelor of Science, a 4 year cours of college study in a broad category 
2/9/2015 MS Master of Science, additional study of 2-3 years in a more focused area
2/10/2015 Ph.D. Doctorate of Philosphy, an additional 4-8 years of study beyond the MS in a specific narrow field
2/11/2015 MD Medical Doctor, a 4 year course of study/hands on training to become a physician
2/12/2015 DVM Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, a 4 year cours of study/ hands on training to become a veterinarian
2/13/2015 Post Doc a research assistant with a Ph.D.
2/16/2015 Lab Manager the person responsible for managing the lab including ordering supplies, scheduling, record keeping and safety
2/17/2015 Grad Student a student with a BS working toward a higher degree
2/18/2015 Undergrad a student working toward a BS
2/19/2015 CPIA Certified Professional IACUC Coordinator
2/20/2015 CVT Certified Veterinary Technician
2/23/2015 RVT Registered Veterinary Technician
2/24/2015 ALAT Assistant Laboratory Animal Technician, the first level of AALAS certification 
2/25/2015 LAT Laboratory Animal Technician, the second level of AALAS certification 
2/26/2015 LATG Laboratory Animal Technologist, the third level of AALAS certification
2/27/2015 CMAR Certified Manager of Animal Resources, a management level of AALAS certification

March 2015  "Look at this"

Date Word Definition
3/2/2015 microscope an optical instrument used for viewing very small objects
3/3/2015 dissecting scope a low-magnificationstereomicroscope used especially for examining or dissectingbiological specimens.
3/4/2015 stage flat area under objectives where slide is placed for viewing
3/5/2015 arm part of the microscope that you carry the microscope with
3/6/2015 objective lenses attached to nosepiece; shortest is low power; longest is  highest power
3/9/2015 aperture the hole in the stage that allows light through for better viewing of the specimen
3/10/2015 turret also called the nosepiece, holds the objectives and rotates to different power magnifications
3/11/2015 base the part of the scope that rests on the table, adjusts to level scope and pads for non-skid use
3/12/2015 illuminator lamp, on old scopes refers to a mirror that directed natural light into the aperture
3/13/2015 stage clips clips on top of the stage which hold the slide in place
3/16/2015 body tube the long tube that holds the eyepiece and connects it to the objectives
3/17/2015 diaphragm controls the amount of light going through the aperture
3/18/2015 nosepiece the rotating part of the microscope at the bottom of the body tube; it holds the objectives
3/19/2015 compound scope a microscope having multiple objectives of different magnifications
3/20/2015 condenser a lens that concentrates light from the light source through the slide 
3/23/2015 lamp source of light usually found near the base of the microscope
3/24/2015 coarse focus on side of scope, for focusing on specimen; may move stage or objectives
3/25/2015 fine focus on side of scope to fine-tune focus on specimen after using the coarse focus
3/26/2015 power switch turns the electric power source for the lamp on and off
3/27/2015 light intensity knob adjusts the brightness of the lamp
3/30/2015 eyepiece where you look through to see the image of your specimen
3/31/2015 stage knobs adjusts the direction the slide moves on the stage, horizontal and vertical controls

April 2015   "Royal Pain"

Date Word Definition
4/1/2015 pain an unpleasant sensation caused by noxious stimulation of the sensory nerve endings
4/2/2015 nociceptor a neuron that is capable of sensing pain
4/6/2015 hyperalgesia excessive sensitivity to pain
4/7/2015 hyperesthesia heightened sensitivity to touch, often perceived as painful or irritating
4/8/2015 pain threshold the point at which a stimulus causes pain
4/9/2015 acute pain pain in response to injury or another stimulus that resolves when the injury heals or the stimulus is removed
4/10/2015 lancinating pain sharp darting pain
4/13/2015 paraesthesia subjective report of abnormal sensation; experienced as numbness, tingling, or "pins andneedles" 
4/14/2015 allodynia pain that results from a noninjurious stimulus to the skin
4/15/2015 referred pain pain felt at a site different from the location of the injury
4/16/2015 chronic pain pain that lasts beyond the term of an injury or painful stimulus
4/17/2015 breakthrough pain transitory flareup of pain in the setting of chronic pain managed with opioids
4/20/2015 intractable pain pain that is not relieved by ordinary medical, surgical, and nursing measures
4/21/2015 psychogenic pain symptoms of physical pain having psychological origin
4/22/2015 cephalodynia Pain in the head; headache
4/23/2015 odontalgia toothache, pain in the teeth
4/24/2015 gastrodynia Pain in the stomach; a stomach ache
4/27/2015 discogenic pain pain related to damaged spinal disks
4/28/2015 angina pain, discomfort, or pressure localized in the chest that is caused by an insufficient supply of blood  to the heart muscle
4/29/2015 neuralgia intense burning or stabbing pain caused by irritation of or damage to a nerve
4/30/2015 analgia an absence of pain

May 2015  "Are those drugs legal?"

Date Word Definition
5/1/2015 cocaine CII derived from the leaves of the coca plant, a stimulant, topical anestethic on mucous membranes
5/4/2015 buprenorphine CIII a semisynthetic opoid derivitive of thebaine used as an analgesic
5/5/2015 ketamine CIII a dissociative anesthetic, stimulates circulatory syatem, does not cause low blood pressure
5/6/2015 testosterone CIII an anabolic steroid used to replace testosterone or to stimulate prostatic cancer growth
5/7/2015 propofal CIII hypnotic amnestic used for induction/maintenance of anesthesia, has NO analgesic properties
5/8/2015 medetomidine CIII a synthetic anesthetic/analgesic, contraindicated in diabetics and cardiac disease patients
5/11/2015 diazepan CIV induces sedation and amnesia and reduces the amount of general anesthestic needed for induction
5/12/2015 tribromoethanol not a controlled substance used for anesthetic in mice not available as a pharmaceutical grade chemical
5/13/2015 meloxicam not a controlled substance NSAID used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic for post op pain
5/14/2015 pentobarbital CII short acting barbiturate administered IP, IV or orally to induce anesthesia
5/15/2015 ketoprofen not a controlled substance NSAID used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyreic, and analgesic for post op pain
5/18/2015 carprofen not a controlled substance NSAID used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic for post op & chronic pain
5/19/2015 xylazine not a controlled substance, used in combination with other drugs to induce anesthesia  
5/20/2015 acepromazine not a controlled substance used as a sedative and antiemetic in animals in conjunction with other drugs
5/21/2015 bupivacaine not a controlled substance used as a local anesthetic, epidural or nerve block, is cardiotoxic
5/22/2015 fentanyl CII potent synthetic opioid analgesic with a rapid onset and short duration of action
5/26/2015 oxymorphone CII is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic used to maintain anesthesia or as a preoperative drug
5/27/2015 tiletamine CIII a dissociative anesthetic used in conjunction with zolazapam in the drug Telazol in cats and dogs
5/28/2015 methohexital CIV a short acting barbiturate derivative with a rapid onset of action used to induce anesthesia
5/29/2015 eugenol not a controlled substance derived from clove buds substance used in fish as an immersion anesthetic 

June 2015  "Look at me"

Date Word Definition
6/1/2015 imaging the creation of digital, print, or film representations of anatomic structures for the purpose of diagnosis
6/2/2015 radiography film records of internal structures of the body by passing x-rays or gamma rays through the body to expose sensitized film
6/3/2015 contrast radiography exaggerating the differences in density of tissues or organs or intraluminal filling defects by introducing contrast agents
6/4/2015 fluoroscopy continuous imaging of the motion of internal structures and immediate serialimages
6/5/2015 mammogram imaging of the breast using x ray
6/8/2015 electroencephalogram record of the tiny electrical impulses produced by the brain's activity
6/9/2015 computed tomography CT, a cross-sectional image of body structures reconstructed by a computer from the x-ray absorption through the body in the image plane
6/10/2015 PET scan nuclear medicine method where the image shows the tissue concentration of a positron-emitting radioisotope
6/11/2015 ultrasonic tomography ultrasonographic visualization of a cross-section of a predetermined plane of the body
6/12/2015 Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI, method of seeing soft tissues using external magnetic field to distinguish hydrogen atoms in different environments
6/15/2015 ultrasonography imaging of deep structures of the body by recording the echoes of pulses of ultrasonic waves directed into the tissues
6/16/2015 angiocardiogram demonstrates the function of the heart and blood vessels by radiographic imaging of the structures after injection of a radiopaque dye
6/17/2015 SPECT scan Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Imaging, non-invasive technique for constructing cross-sectional images of radiotracer distribution
6/18/2015 SQUID scan Superconducting Quantum Interference Device, used to record the brain's biomagnetic fields
6/19/2015 scintigraphy production of two-dimensional images of distribution of radioactivity in tissues after the internal administration of  radiopharmaceutical imaging agents
6/22/2015 ethogram a pictoral inventory of the repertoire of behavior patterns shown by the members of a species
6/23/2015 intravenous pyelogram IVP, use of a dye, injected intravenously, to determine the anatomy of the urinary system
6/24/2015 digital radiography x-ray absorption is quantified by assignment of a number; the information is sent to a computerto produce an image
6/25/2015 diagram a graphic representation, in simplest form, of an object or concept, made up of lines and lacking any pictorial content
6/26/2015 post-op monitoring collection and analysis of cardiovascular, respiratory, and body temperature data todetermine and prevent complications
6/29/201 sign objective evidence of a disease as is perceptible to the examining physician
6/30/2015 symptom subjective evidence of disease as perceived by the patient
 

July 2015   "I know your name"

Date Word Definition
7/1/2015 mouse Mus musculus
7/2/2015 rat Rattus norvegicus
7/6/2015 Syrian hamster Mesocricetus auratus
7/7/2015 Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus
7/8/2015 guinea pig Cavia porcellus
7/9/2015 rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus
7/10/2015 chicken Gallus domesticus
7/13/2015 zebrafish Danio rerio
7/14/2015 African clawed frog Xenopus laevis
7/15/2015 American bullfrog Rana catesbeiana
7/16/2015 miniature pig Sus scrofa domesticus
7/17/2015 ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus
7/20/2015 caecillian Typhlonectes natans
7/21/2015 goldfish Carassius auratus auratus
7/22/2015 horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus
7/23/2015 eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus
7/24/2015 dog Canis familiaris
7/27/2015 cat Felis domesticus
7/28/2015 opposum Didelphis virginiana
7/29/2015 grey treefrog Hyla versicolor
7/30/201 eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus
7/31/2015 blue crab Callinectes sapidus

August 2015  "Debug and Deworm"

Date Word Definition
8/3/2015 parasite an organism that lives in or on and at the expense of a larger organism
8/4/2015 host an organism that supports a parasite
8/5/2015 helminth worms, in particular the five groups of parasitic worms
8/6/2015 antihelminthic an agent that destroys or causes the expulsion of parasitic intestinal worms
8/7/2015 trematodes hermaphroditic parasitic flat worms covered with a chitinous skin, and having 2 or more suckers for adhesion
8/10/2015 cestodes ribbon shaped worms in the small intestine having an anchoring scolex and progressively maturing reproductive segments
8/11/2015 nematodes roundworms with a long, unsegmented body, comprising both parasitic and free-living species
8/12/2015 fluke the common name for tremadodes
8/13/2015 tapeworm the common name for cestodes
8/14/2015 roundworm the common name for parasitic nematodes that live in the intestinal tract
8/17/2015 arthropods invertebrate animalsdistinguished by a jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs
8/18/2015 flea a small wingless blood sucking insect, a common ectoparasite
8/19/2015 tick small, bloodsucking parasitic arachnids, many transmit febrile diseases
8/20/2015 louse small flat-bodied wingless biting or sucking insects, many of which are ectoparasites
8/21/2015 protozoans unicellular eukaryotic organisms; some lead a parasitic existance
8/24/2015 flagellates parasitic protozoa having 1 or more long slender flagella for locomotion, living in blood, lymph  or genital/alimentary tracts
8/25/2015 coccidians parasitic protosoa living in  blood or alimentary tracts, may require multiple hosts during the reproductive cycle
8/26/2015 ciliates large parasitic protozoa covered with small hairs (cilia) for locomotion, live in alimentary tracts
8/27/2015 heartworm filarial worms found chiefly in the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries, require intermediat mosquito hosts
8/28/2015 whipworm  Trichuridae family of nematodes with a body thick at one end and very log and slender at the other  giving the appearance of a whip
8/31/201 hookworm a parasitic nematode with hooked mouthparts to fasten themselves to the intestinal walls to feed on nutrient rich blood

September 2015  "Bite Me"

Date Word Definition
9/1/2015 tooth one of a set of small hard structures in the jawsused for mastication of food
9/2/2015 teeth plural of tooth
9/3/2015 mastication the process of chewing food in preparation for swallowing and digestion
9/4/2015 dentition the teeth in the dental arch
9/8/2015 dentate having teeth or projections like saw teeth on an edge
9/9/2015 dentilabial pertaining to the teeth and lips
9/10/2015 dentibuccal pertaining to the teeth and cheek
9/11/2015 dentilingual pertaining to the teeth and tongue
9/14/2015 dentin the chief substance/tissue of the teeth, surrounds the pulp
9/15/2015 enamal in some species is the hard outer layer on the crown of the tooth, ivory
9/16/2015 cementum a layer of true bone that covers the root of the tooth
9/17/2015 pulp the soft center of the tooth containing connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels
9/18/2015 decidious the first teeth, milk teeth, which are shed and replaced by adult dentition
9/21/2015 permanent the second, adult teeth , in the dentition
9/22/2015 crown that portion of the tooth that extend above the gum
9/23/2015 root that portion of the tooth that anchors the tooth into the bone
9/24/2015 incisors cutting teeth found at the front of the dentition and having very long single roots
9/25/2015 canines piercing teeth on each side of the incisiors, have the longest conical crown and root
9/28/2015 premolars teeth found between the canines and molars, have a shearing action
9/29/2015 molars the teeth at the back of the dentition, usually wider used for grinding
9/30/2015 dentist a doctor of dental science, one who treats dental disease and restores defective teeth

October 2015  "You Scare Me!"

Date Word Definition
10/1/2015 phobia a persistent, abnormal, and irrational fear of a specific thing or situation
10/2/2015 zoophobia fear of animals
10/5/2015 musophobia fear of mice
10/6/2015 doraphobia fear of fur or animal skins
10/7/2015 hippophobia fear of horses
10/8/2015 ailurophobia fear of cats
10/9/2015 cynophobia fear of dogs
10/12/2015 bovinophobia fear of cows
10/13/2015 ophidiophobia fear of snakes
10/14/2015 chiroptophobia fear of bats
10/15/2015 ichthyophobia fear of fish
10/16/2015 melissophobia fear of bees
10/19/2015 alektorophobia fear of chickens
10/20/2015 bufonophobia fear of toads
10/21/2015 herpetophobia fear of all reptiles
10/22/2015 lutraphobia fear of otters
10/23/2015 ornithophobia fear of birds
10/26/2015 ranidaphobia fear of frogs
10/27/2015 selachophobia fear of sharks
10/28/2015 agrizoophobia fear of wild animals
10/29/2015 ostraconophobia fear of shellfish
10/30/2015 taurophobia fear of bulls

November 2015  "Give me a break"

Date Word Definition
11/2/2015 fracture a break in a bone
11/3/2015 greenstick a fracture in which one side of the bone is broken and the other side only bent
11/4/2015 spiral a fracture caused by twisting apart of the bone
11/5/2015 transverse a fracture at right angles to the axis of the bone
11/6/2015 comminuted a fracture where the bone is crushed or splintered into multiple pieces
11/9/2015 compound a fracture that punctures through the skin
11/10/2015 capillary a fracture on x-ray appearing as a fine lines without separation of bone
11/11/2015 simple a fracture that does not penetrate through the skin
11/12/2015 multiple fracture lines on a single bone where the lines are not connected
11/13/2015 epiphysial a fracture at the point of union of the epiphysis (growth plate) and the shaft of the bone
11/16/2015 longitudinal a break in a bone extending lengthwise
11/17/2015 impacted a fracture where one fragment is firmly driven into the other
11/18/2015 trophic a fracture caused by nutritional deficiencies
11/19/2015 articular a fracture on the joint surface of a bone 
11/20/2015 bending an indirect fracture caused by the bending of a limb
11/23/2015 pathologic a fracture arising from a mild injury due to preexisting tumor, cyst, or infection
11/24/2015 resecting a fracture in which a piece of bone is removed by violence
11/25/2015 stellate a fracture with fissures radiating from the central point of injury
11/30/2015 en coin a V-shaped fracture

December 2015  "Give me a hand"

Date Word Definition
12/1/2015 foot the distal portion of the leg on which an animal stands and walks
12/2/2015 paw a foot; especially of carnivores and other digitigrade animals
12/3/2015 claw a shark, slender, usually curved nail on the toe of an animal
12/4/2015 thumb the radial or first digit of the hand; having two phalanges, is apposable to the fingers
12/7/2015 toe a digit of the foot
12/8/2015 hand the terminal part of the upper limb of a human or non-human primate
12/9/2015 finger one of the digits of the hand; jointed and comprised of phalanges
12/10/2015 carpus the joint between the arm and the hand, the wrist; made of eight bones
12/11/2015 tarsus the joint between the foot and the leg, the ankle; made of seven bones
12/14/2015 plantar the sole of the foot or caudal aspect of the tarsus on the hind limb of an animal
12/15/2015 palmar the palm of hte hand or caudal aspect of the carpus on the forelimb of an animal
12/16/2015 hoof the horny covering of the digit of ungulates
12/17/2015 dewclaw the rudimentary first digit of dogs, cats and rabbits, found on the inner side of the forelegs of an animal
12/18/2015 chestnut flattened, oval masses of horn on the medial surface of the foreleg and hock of horses
12/21/2015 digit a finger or toe
12/22/2015 phalanges plural of phalanx, the bones of the fingers and toes
12/23/2015 knuckle the dorsal aspect of any interphalangeal joint

January 2016   "A breath of fresh air"

Date Word Definition
1/4/2016 nares openings in the nose for passage of air in and out
1/5/2016 nasal sinus mucosa-lined air cavities in the cranial bones which communicates with the nasal cavity
1/6/2016 turbinates small bones shaped like a toy top located in the sinuses
1/7/2016 epistaxis nose bleed
1/8/2016 pharynx the musculomembranous sac between the mouth, nares, and esophagus
1/11/2016 larynx a mucous membrane lined structure above the trachea and below the tongue, the organ of voice
1/12/2016 epiglottis a lid like cartilaginous structure over the larynx that prevents food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing
1/13/2016 trachea a tube made of cartilaginous rings leading from the larynx and branching to form the bronchi
1/14/2016 bronchus pl. bronchi, any of the larger air passages of the lungs
1/15/2016 bronchiole a finer branch of the bronchial tree, less than 1 mm in diameter
1/18/2016 lung the organ of respiration, paired organs that effect the aeration of the blood
1/19/2016 alveolus pl. alveoli, small outpouching of the walls of the alveolar sacs/duct/bronchioles through which gas exchange takes place
1/20/2016 atelectasis a condition of the collapse of a lung
1/21/2016 diaphragm the muscle separating the thoracic and the abdominal cavities
1/22/2016 inspiration the act of drawing air into the lungs
1/25/2016 expiration the act of expelling air from the lungs
1/26/2016 auscultation listening to the sounds of the body especially the heart and lungs
1/27/2016 sternutation the act of sneezing
1/28/2016 dyspnea difficult breathing
1/29/2016 cyanosis a blue tint to the skin/mucous membranes due to deficient oxygenation of the blood

February 2016  "Love is in the air"

Date Word Definition
2/1/2016 estrus recurrent, restricted period of sexual receptivity
2/2/2016 pheromones a substance secreted outside the body and perceived by smell, causing a specific behavior in another of the same species
2/3/2016 Whitten Effect a synchronization of estrus among female mice housed together due to male pheromones
2/4/2016 McClintock Effect analogous to the Whitten Effect except female pheromone driven for the synchronization of estrus cycles
2/5/2016 Bruce Effect a reabsorption or abortion of feti by the female when the sire of the litter is replaced by another male
2/8/2016 Loos-Boot Effect supression/prolongation of estrus cycles of mature mice when females are housed in groups and isolated from males
2/9/2016 Vandenbergh Effect early first estrus in prepubertal female mice as a result to exposure to the urine of a sexuallt mature male mouse
2/10/2016 conception the penetration of the ovum by the sperm
2/11/2016 gravid pregnant
2/12/2016 gestation the time of conception to birth
2/15/2016 dystocia difficult labor or birth
2/16/2016 parturition the process of giving birth
2/17/2016 placenta the organ of mammals during pregnancy joining the mother to offspring
2/18/2016 umbilicus a small scar marking the attachment of the umbilical cord in the fetus
2/19/2016 post-partum the time after birth - refers to the female
2/22/2016 colostrum mammary secretion of fluid predominantly immunoglobulins and minerals
2/23/2016 lactation secretion of milk from the mammary glands
2/24/2016 vasectomy surgical removal or severing of the vas deferens to induce infertility
2/25/2016 castration surgical removal of the gonads to prevent reproduction
2/26/2016 hysterectomy surgical removal of the uterus
2/29/2016 ovariectomy surgical removal of the ovaries

March 2016  "A gust of air"

Date Word Definition
3/1/2016 aeroplankton living particles drifting in the air (spores, pollen, bacteria, etc.)
3/2/2016 aerobiology the study of airborne organisms and their distribution
3/3/2016 konometer an instrument for counting the number of dust particles in the air
3/4/2016 aeolian wind borne
3/7/2016 aerometer an instrument for measuring the density of air (weighing air)
3/8/2016 aeromorphosis modification of form or structure owing to exposure to wind
3/9/2016 windburn chapping of the skin due to excessive exposure to the wind
3/10/2016 windchill loss of heat from the body when exposed to the wind
3/11/2016 windpipe a common name for the trachea
3/14/2016 anemometer an instrument for measuring wind speed
3/15/2016 aerodynamics the science of air and gases in motion
3/16/2016 hyperbaric gases under greater than normal atmospheric pressure
3/17/2016 atelectasis incomplete expansion of lungs at birth or collapse of the adult lung
3/18/2016 ancraophobia fear of the wind
3/21/2016 aeroatelectasis a partial reversable airless state of lung tissue, occurs in pilots at high G forces in 100% oxygen when wearing an anti-G suit 
3/22/2016 aerogenesis gas production
3/23/2016 vapor steam, gas or exhalation
3/24/2016 tympany a flatulent distention of the belly
3/25/2016 flatus often noisy expulsion of gas from the intestines
3/28/2016 aerosis the production of gas in the tissues or organs of the body
3/29/2016 aerogastria distention of the stomach with gas
3/30/2016 aerodermectasia the presence of air in the subcutaneous tissue, may be seen in cases of pneumothorax
3/31/2016 aerophobia morbid fear of drafts of air, airborne influences or "bad air" (that is body odor or flatus)

April 2016   "Spring is in the air"

Date Word Definition
4/1/2016 pollen the mass of microspores of flowering plants, many airborne pollens are allergens
4/4/2016 antigen a substance capable of inducing the formation of anitbodies and reacting with the antibodies so produced
4/5/2016 antibody immunoglobulin molecule with a specific amino acid sequence that reacts only with the antigen that induced its synthesis
4/6/2016 allergy a hypersensitive state acquired by exposure to a particular antigen, reexposure resulting in an altered capacity to react
4/7/2016 allergen a protein or non-protein capable of inducing hypersensitivity
4/8/2016 atopy a clinical hypersensitive state with a hereditary predisposition
4/11/2016 anaphylaxis an exaggerated allergic response caused by an antigen-antibody reaction
4/12/2016 histamine substance produced by mast cells and basophils and acts as a mediator of immediate hypersensitivity
4/13/2016 antihistamine a drug that counteracts the action of histamine
4/14/2016 desensitize to remove antibody from sensitized cells for the purpose of preventing allergy or anaphylaxis
4/15/2016 contact allergy a hypersensitive skin reaction caused by dermal contact with an allergen
4/18/2016 food allergy a hypersensitive reaction caused by the ingestion of certain foods or drugs, usually manifested by a skin reaction
4/19/2016 induced allergy allergy resulting from the injection, contact or infection with an antigen
4/20/2016 lacrimation the secretion and discharge of tears
4/21/2016 erythema a redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion
4/22/2016 sneeze an involuntary, sudden, violent and audible expulsion of air through the nose and mouth
4/25/2016 nasal sinusitus inflammation of the nasal sinuses
4/26/2016 conjunctivitis inflammation of the membranes that line the eyelids and sclera
4/27/2016 pruritus an unpleasant cutaneous sensation that provokes the desire to scratch or rub the skin
4/28/2016 uticaria a vascular reaction of the skin with the formation of smooth, raised, red patches attended by severe itching
4/29/2016 allergic dermatitis any inflammation of the skin believed to be caused by allergy

May 2016  "A Cultured Air"

Date Word Definition
5/2/2016 culture to grow in vitro
5/3/2016 continuous culture a culture in liquid medium under constant conditions and nutrient supply so as to grow for and extended period of time
5/4/2016 cell line a permanently established cell culture that proliferates indefinately given appropriate fresh medium and space
5/5/2016 cell lineage the lineage of a cell relates to its derivation from the undifferentiated tissues of the embryo
5/6/2016 cell strain cells adapted to culture but with finite division potential
5/9/2016 Hayflick's limit the limit of human cell division in subcultures; such cells will divide only about 50 times before dying out
5/10/2016 tissue culture technique of cell culture using cells dispersed from tissues or distant decendants of such cells
5/11/2016 primary cell culture cells taken from a tissue source and their progeny grown in culture before subdivision and transfer to a subculture
5/12/2016 subculture a culture made by transferring to a fresh medium cells or microorganisms from a previous culture
5/13/2016 anchorage dependence the necessary attachment (and spreading) in order that a cell will grow and divide in culture
5/16/2016 lag phase the initial growth phase of a culture during which cell numbers remain relatively constant prior to rapid growth
5/17/2016 acceleration phase the time when a culture is starting to grow at an increasing rate
5/18/2016 log phase the phase of vigorous growth during which cell number doubles every 20-30 minutes
5/19/2016 death phase the final growth phase in a culture during which nutrients have been depleted and cell number decreases
5/20/2016 clones a group of cells derived from a single ancestor
5/23/2016 colony a group of identical cells (clones) derived from a single parent cell
5/24/2016 pure culture a culture containing a single kind of microorganism or cell
5/25/2016 inoculum cells added to start a culture or in the case of viruses, viruses added to infect a culture of cells
5/26/2016 cell line rights ownership of a new organism entity. Any organism can be patented if it has been manipulated to do something useful
5/27/2016 frozen stock cells are frozen so that experiments are all carried out on cells of comparable passage number
5/30/2016 passage the number of times a cell line has been subcultured
5/31/2016 ATCC American Type Culture Collection - a nonprofit company that collects, produces, preserves, and distributes standard reference microorganisms, cell lines, and other materials for research

June 2016  "Smells like..."

Date Word Definition
6/1/2016 rhinoplasty surgery on the nose - reconstructive, restorative, or cosmetic
6/2/2016 rhinorrhea runny nose, a free discharge of thin mucus secretions from the nose
6/3/2016 rhinitis inflammation of the mucus membranes of the nose
6/6/2016 rhinodynia pain in the nose
6/7/2016 rhinolith a nasal stone or concretion
6/8/2016 rhinopathy any disease of the nose
6/9/2016 nasal septum the partition separating the two nasal cavities composed of cartilage, bone, and mucous membrane
6/10/2016 rhinoscope a speculum used in nasal examinations
6/13/2016 rhinorrhagia epistaxis; nose bleed
6/14/2016 rhinostenosis a narrowing of a nasal passage
6/15/2016 rhinovaccination topical application of a vaccine to the mucus membranes of the nose
6/16/2016 rhinostegnosis obstruction of a nasal passage
6/17/2016 nares the external opening of the nose, the nostrils
6/20/2016 naris a single external opening of the nose
6/21/2016 nasal pertaining to the nose
6/22/2016 nasitis inflammation of the nose
6/23/2016 naso-oral pertaining to or involving the nose and the mouth
6/24/2016 nasoscope a lighted instrument for inspecting the nasal cavity inserted through a naris
6/27/2016 nasograph an instrument used to measure the nose
6/28/2016 nasomanometer an instrument used to measure intranasal pressure
6/29/2016 rhinedema edema of the nose, swelling with fluid in subcutaneous spaces of the nose
6/30/2016 rhinesthesia the sense of smell

July 2016  "A Blast of Hot Air"

Date Word Definition
7/1/2016 body temperature the temperature of the body under normal conditions
7/5/2016 basal temperature the temperature of the body under conditions of absolute rest
7/6/2016 fever elevation of body temperature above the normal
7/7/2016 pyrexia fever
7/8/2016 pyro -  a combining form meaning heat or fire
7/11/2016 pyrogen a fever producing substance
7/12/2016 pyrogenic inducing fever
7/13/2016 pyrosis heart burn, a burning sensation in the esophagus and stomach
7/14/2016 thermometer an instrument to measure temperatures
7/15/2016 hyperthermia abnormally high body temperature, especially if induced for therapeutic reasons
7/18/2016 hyperthermalgesia abnormal increased sensitivity to heat
7/19/2016 thermalgesia condition where the application of heat produces pain
7/20/2016 thermal injury an injury caused by heat or heated objects
7/21/2016 homiothermic an animal that maintains a constant body temperature despite environmental temperatures
7/22/2016 warm-blooded an animal that is homiothermic
7/25/2016 endothermic characterized by or accompanied by the absorbtion of heat
7/26/2016 exothermic characterized by or accompanied by the evolution or release of heat
7/27/2016 antipyretic relieving or reducing fever
7/28/2016 antipyrotic therapeutically effective against burns
7/29/2016 pyrolysis decomposition of organic substances under the influence of a rise in temperature

August 2016   "Air goes in and air comes out"

Date Word Definition
8/1/2016 respiration exchange of oxygen and CO2 between the atmosphere and the cells of the body
8/2/2016 inspiration the act of drawing air into the lungs
8/3/2016 expiration the act of expelling air from the lungs
8/4/2016 exhalation the act of breathing out
8/5/2016 breathing the alternating inspiration and expiration of air into and out of the lungs
8/8/2016 inhalation the drawing of air or other substances ino the lungs
8/9/2016 insufflation the act of blowing a powder, vapor, gas, or air into a body cavity
8/10/2016 atelectasis incomplete expansion of the lungs at birth or collapse of the adult lung
8/11/2016 ventilation the process of exchange of air between the lungs and the ambient air
8/12/2016 trachea the ringed cartilaginous tube descending from larynx and branching into bronchi
8/15/2016 intubation insertion of a tube into the trachea through the glottis
8/16/2016 tachypnea excessive rapidity of respirations
8/17/2016 dyspnea difficult breathing
8/18/2016 bradypnea abnormal slowness of breathing
8/19/2016 hyperpnea abnormal increase in the depth and rate of respirations
8/22/2016 flatulence excessive amounts of air or gas in the stomach or intestines
8/23/2016 flatus air or gas expelled through the anus
8/24/2016 eructation noisy voiding of gas or air from the stomach through the mouth
8/25/2016 hyperbaric gases under greater than atmospheric pressure
8/26/2016 hyperoxia excessive oxygen in the system or blood 
8/29/2016 hypoxia deficiency of oxygen in the inspired air
8/30/2016 sneeze to expell air forcibly and spazmotically through the nose and mouth
8/31/2016 sternutation the act of sneezing

September 2016  "Filling the ait with big words"

Date Word Definition
9/1/2016 dermatitis inflammation of the skin
9/2/2016 emaciation excessive leanness of the body, a wasted condition
9/6/2016 exania prolapse of the rectum
9/7/2016 paraphimosis retraction of the prepuce around the penis causing swelling
9/8/2016 hyperesthesia abnormally increased sensitivity of the skin
9/9/2016 hyperactivity a sustained increase above normal activity
9/12/2016 dyspnea difficulty breathing
9/13/2016 anorexia loss of appetite
9/14/2016 malocclusion upper and lower incisors do not meet causing overgrowth of teeth and difficulty eating/drinking
9/15/2016 dehydration excessive loss of body water
9/16/2016 diarrhea abnormal frequency and liquidity of fecal discharges
9/19/2016 lethargy a condition of drowsiness or indifference
9/20/2016 paresis weakness and partial loss of voluntary muscle movement
9/21/2016 paralysis complete loss of voluntary muscle movement
9/22/2016 hypothermia low body temperature
9/23/2016 erythema redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries
9/26/2016 excoriation superficial loss of skin such as that caused by excessive scratching
9/27/2016 pruitis itching, an unpleasant cutaneous sensation that provokes the desire to scratch or rub the skin
9/28/2016 conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva - the mucous membranes of the eye
9/29/2016 blepharitis inflammation of the eyelids
9/30/2016 alopecia absence of hair from areas where it is normally present

October 2016   "An Heir Apparent"

Date Word Definition
10/3/2016 backcross the mating of a hybrid organism (offspring of genetically unlike parents) with one of its parents
10/4/2016 hybrid the offspring of two genetically different parents (specifically of two different strains)
10/5/2016 founder offspring of animals into which cloned genetic material has been experimentally transferred by microinjection
10/6/2016 chimera a single organism composed of genetically distinct cells
10/7/2016 generation a group of offspring constituting a single step in the line of descent from an ancestor
10/10/2016 filial generations a sequence of matings “F1,” is a cross of 2 different strains,brother-sister matings are numbered consecutively
10/11/2016 congenic strains mating two inbred strains and backcrossing the descendants 5-10 generations with one of the original strains
10/12/2016 coisogenic strains inbred animals that are geneticall identical except for a difference at a single genetic locus
10/13/2016 inbred individuals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in genotype due to long inbreeding
10/14/2016 inbred strain a strain that has been maintained by sibling (sister x brother) matings for 20 or more consecutive generations
10/17/2016 substrain a substrain has known or probable genetic differences from the parental inbred strain
10/18/2016 outcross a mating between genetically unrelated mice
10/19/2016 outbred strain a group of animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species 
10/20/2016 genetic drift random fluctuations in numbers of gene variants  not linked to natural selection, mutation, and migration
10/21/2016 GEM Genetically Engineered Mouse
10/24/2016 mutation a permament transmissible change in the genetic material, usually in a single gene
10/25/2016 phenotype entire physical, biochemical, and physiological make up of an organism as determined by genes and environment
10/26/2016 genotype the entire genetic make up of an organism
10/27/2016 karyotype the chromosomal constitution of the nucleus of a cell
10/28/2016 zygote the diploid cell resulting from union of a sperm and an oocyte
10/31/2016 mosaic an animal having 2 or more cell lines karyotypically or genotypically distinct derived from a single zygote

November 2016  "An air of authority"

Date Word Definition
11/1/2016 ALAT Assistant Laboratory Animal Technician, the first level of AALAS certification
11/2/2016 LAT Laboratory Animal Technician, the second level of AALAS certification
11/3/2016 LATG Laboratory Animal Technologist, the third level of AALAS certification
11/4/2016 CMAR Certified Manager of Animal Resources, a specialized level of AALAS certification
11/7/2016 DVM Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
11/8/2016 RVT Registered Veterinary Technician
11/9/2016 PI Principle Investigator, the person leading and responsible for the research project
11/10/2016 Ph.D. Doctorate of Philosophy
11/11/2016 AALAS American Association of Laboratory Animal Science
11/14/2016 AAALAC Assocoatoin for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, International
11/15/2016 USDA United States Department of Agriculture
11/16/2016 APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, a branch of the USDA
11/17/2016 NIH National Institutes of Heath, the largest funding agency for research
11/18/2016 OLAW Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, part of NIH
11/21/2016 NABR National Association for Biomedical Research
11/22/2016 AWA Animal Welfare Act
11/23/2016 GLP Good Laboratory Practices
11/28/2016 FDA Food and Drug Administration
11/29/2016 DEA Drug Enforcement Agency
11/30/2016 AVMA American Veterinary Medical Association

December 2016  "Sounds are in the air"

Date Word Definition
12/1/2016 big dog woof
12/2/2016 cat  meow, purr
12/5/2016 snake hiss
12/6/2016 bird tweet, chirp
12/7/2016 cow moo
12/8/2016 horse neigh, whinny, nicker
12/9/2016 donkey heehaw, bray
12/12/2016 turkey gobble
12/13/2016 cricket chirp
12/14/2016 pig grunt, oink
12/15/2016 lion roar
12/16/2016 rooster cockle-doodle-doo, crow
12/19/2016 hen cluck
12/20/2016 lamb baa
12/21/2016 goat naa
12/22/2016 little dog yap
12/23/2016 frog ribbit, croak

January 2017   "Part of the Team"

Date Word Definition
1/3/2017 Cagewash Technician personnel who provide cage and animal equipment sanitation 
1/4/2017 ALAT responsible for animal care and husbandry
1/5/2017 LAT responsible for assisting in animal research activities as well as animal husbandry tasks
1/6/2017 LATG responsible for animal research, animal health, and recordkeeping
1/9/2017 CMAR a person specializing in the management of lab animal resources
1/10/2017 RVT a registered veterinary technician concerned with the day to day health of the laboratory animals
1/11/2017 DVM a licensed veterinarian specializing in the care of lab animals advises and coordinates animal use
1/12/2017 Institutional Official the individual responsible for compliance of overall research activities at the institution 
1/13/2017 Principal Investigator the scientist who plans and coordinates all phases of the research work
1/16/2017 Co-Investigator assists the PI with development of the hypothesis and publication of data
1/17/2017 Research Technician performs specific research tasks  - generates and collects research data
1/18/2017 Laboratory Manager coordinates personnel and supplies for the research enterprise
1/19/2017 IACUC Member part of the federally mandated research oversight committee
1/20/2017 Scientist the IACUC must have one scientist on the committee who uses animals
1/23/2017 Non-Scientist the IACUC must have one person not involved in animal research on the committee
1/24/2017 Non-Affiliated  the IACUC must have one member representing the community not affiliated with the institution
1/25/2017 Attending Veterinarian the IACUC must have DVM on the committee who is certified or experienced in lab animal medicine
1/26/2017 Statistician a person able to provide statistical evaluation of data and animal numbers
1/27/2017 Ethicist one whose judgment on ethics and ethical codes has come to be trusted by the scientific community
1/30/2017 Animal Vendors companies that supply animals bred and developed specifically for research 
1/31/2017 Equipment Suppliers companies that supply and maintain equipment

February 2017   "Part of the Family"

Date Word Definition
2/1/2017 ancestor one in direct line of descent from which an animal is derived
2/2/2017 family taxonomic grouping intermediate between the order and the genus
2/3/2017 parent one that begets or brings forth offspring
2/6/2017 sire male parent
2/7/2017 dam female parent
2/8/2017 offspring the product of the reproductive processes of an animal
2/9/2017 sibling one of two or more animals having  common parents
2/10/2017 surrogate one that serves as a substitute especially in the capacity of the dam
2/13/2017 co-parent two female mice raise a single litter together, ususally an experienced dam and a first time mother
2/14/2017 weanling a newly weaned animal 
2/15/2017 neonate a newborn
2/16/2017 foster affording, receiving, or sharing nurture or parental care though not related by blood
2/17/2017 cull to identify and remove less desirable members from a group
2/20/2017 founder one that establishes a foundation providing the geneting basis for a strain
2/21/2017 half-siblings animals that share one parent in common
2/22/2017  mate either of a pair matched for breeding
2/23/2017 stud a male animal kept for breeding
2/24/2017 litter the offspring at one birth of a multiparous animal
2/27/2017 twin one of two animals born at a single birth (non-mulitparous)
2/28/2017 runt an animal unusually small; especially the smallest of a litter